Xiandai Hanyu Cidian

Jump to: navigation, search
A Dictionary of Current Chinese
A Dictionary of Current Chinese, Revised (1996) ('Third Edition') (Xiandai Hanyu Cidian Xiudingben)
Editors Dictionary Editing Office, Institute of Linguistics,
Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (Chinese: 中国社会科学院语言研究所词典编辑室)
Country  China
Language Chinese
Genre Dictionary
Publisher Commercial Press (Beijing)
Publication date
December 1978 (1st edition)
September 2016 (7th edition)
Pages 1894 pages
ISBN 9787100124508

Xiandai Hanyu Cidian (simplified Chinese: 现代汉语词典; traditional Chinese: 現代漢語詞典; pinyin: Xiàndài Hànyǔ Cídiǎn), also known as A Dictionary of Current Chinese[1] or Contemporary Chinese Dictionary[citation needed] is an important[2] one-volume dictionary of Standard Mandarin Chinese published by the Commercial Press, now into its 7th (2016) edition. It was originally edited by Lü Shuxiang and Ding Shengshu as a reference work on modern Standard Chinese. Compilation started in 1958 and trial editions were issued in 1960 and 1965, with a number of copies printed in 1973 for internal circulation and comments, but due to the Cultural Revolution the final draft was not completed until the end of 1977, and the first formal edition was not published until December 1978. It was the first People's Republic of China dictionary to be arranged according to Hanyu Pinyin, the phonetic standard for Standard Chinese, with explanatory notes in simplified Chinese. The subsequent second through seventh editions were respectively published in 1983 ('2nd edition'), 1996 ('3rd edition'), 2002 ('4th edition'), 2005 (5th edition), 2012 (6th edition) and 2016 (7th edition).

In 1994, A Dictionary of Current Chinese won China's First National Book Award.[3] The seventh edition contains about 70,000 entries including characters, words and expressions, idiomatic phrases and idioms. The dictionary is also available in digital format on CD-ROMs and Traditional Chinese digital versions.

Editions

Edition Release date Number of entries ISBN
Trial 1960 Unknown -
Trial 1965 Unknown -
1st 1970's 56,000 17017·91[4]
2nd 1983 56,000 ISBN 7-100-00044-0
3rd 1996 60,000 ISBN 9787100017770
4th 2002 61,000 ISBN 9787100034777
5th 26 July 2005 65,000 ISBN 9787100043854
6th 1 June 2012 69,000 ISBN 9787100084673
7th 1 September 2016 70,000 ISBN 9787100124508

New entries in the 6th edition

[5]

Type of entries Examples in Chinese (S) Respective Pronunciation (in Pinyin) Remarks Respective English Translation
Economic 产业链, 环比, 负资产, 第一桶金, 民营企业, 非公有制经济, 文化产业 chǎnyèliàn, huánbǐ, fùzīchǎn, dìyītǒngjīn, mínyíng qǐyè, fēigōngyǒuzhì jīngjì, wénhuà chǎnyè supply chain, compared with the last same statistical period, negative equity, first pot of gold, private enterprise, non-common ownership sector, cultural industry
Social management 医疗保险, 医改, 民调, 首问制, 调峰, 限行, 摇号, 调节税 yīliáo bǎoxiǎn, yīgǎi, míndiào, shǒuwènzhì, tiáofēng, xiànxíng, yáohào, tiáojiéshuì health insurance, healthcare reform, opinion poll, first asked responsibility system, peak regulation, driving restriction, (licence plate) lottery, regulatory tax
Daily life 产权证, 房贷, 群租, 二手房, 廉租房, 两限房, 动车, 屏蔽门, 高铁, 轨道交通, 车贷, 车险, 代驾, 酒驾, 醉驾 chǎnquánzhèng, fángdài, qúnzū, èrshǒufáng, liánzūfáng, liǎngxiànfáng, dòngchē, píngbìmén, gāotiě, guǐdào jiāotōng, chēdài, chēxiǎn, dàijià, jiǔjià, zuìjià property right certificate, home loan, group-oriented leasing, second-hand home, low-rent housing, apartment with double limitations, multiple unit/power car, platform screen door, high-speed rail, rail transport, car loan, car insurance, designated driving, drunk driving (0.02%<BAC<0.08%), drunk driving (BAC>0.08%)
New lifestyle 拼车, 拼购, 团购, 网购, 网聊, 瘦身, 塑身, 茶叙, 自驾游, 自助游, 背包客 pīnchē, pīngòu, tuángòu, wǎnggòu, wǎngliáo, shòushēn, sùshēn, cháxù, zìjiàyóu, zìzhùyóu, bēibāokè carpooling, shop-pooling, group buying, online shopping, online chatting, slimming, body shaping, tea gathering, self-drive tour, DIY travel, backpacker
IT and Internet 播客, 博客, 博文, 跟帖, 超媒体, 电子书, 电子政务, 内联网, 物联网, 网评, 网瘾, 微博, 云计算 bōkè, bókè, bówén, gēntiě, chāoméitǐ, diànzǐshū, diànzǐ zhèngwù, nèiliánwǎng, wùliánwǎng, wǎngpíng, wǎngyǐn, wēibó, yúnjìsuàn podcast, blog, blog post, follow-up thread, hypermedia, e-book, e-government, Intranet, Internet of Things, online comment, Internet addiction, microblog, cloud computing
Starting with letters CPI, PPI, PM2.5, ETC, ECFA, FTA Read according to English pronunciation Native terms: 居民消费价格指数,[6] 工业生产者出厂价格指数, 细颗粒物, 电子不停车收费, 海峡两岸经济合作框架协议, 自由贸易协定 CPI, PPI, PM2.5, ETC, ECFA, FTA (Free-trade Agreement)
Loanwords from English 晒, 博客, 微博, 丁克, 粉丝, 嘉年华, 桑拿, 舍宾, 斯诺克, 脱口秀 shài, bókè, wēibó, dīngkè, fěnsī, jiāniánhuá, sāngná, shěbīn, sīnuòkè, tuōkǒuxiù 微博 < 微 (micro-) + abbr. of 博客, 粉丝 < "fans" share (to tell to another), blog, microblog, DINK, fan, carnival, sauna, , snooker, talk show
Loanwords from Japanese 刺身, 定食, 寿司, 天妇罗, 榻榻米, 通勤, 手帐, 数独 cìshēn, dìngshí, shòusī, tiānfùluō, tàtàmǐ, tōngqín, shǒuzhàng, shùdú Original forms and readings (in Japanese): 刺身 sashimi, 定食 teishoku, 寿司 sushi, 天婦羅 tenpura, 畳 tatami, 通勤 tsūkin, 手帳 techō, 数独 sūdoku sashimi, teishoku (set meal), sushi, tempura, tatami, commute, diary/appointment book, sudoku
Terms from Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macau 八卦, 搞掂(or 搞定), 狗仔队, 无厘头, 手信, 饮茶 bāguà, gǎodiān (or gǎodìng), gǒuzǎiduì, wúlítóu, shǒuxìn, yǐnchá gossip, fixed/handled, paparazzi, funky, souvenir, yum cha
Terms from Taiwan 软体, 硬体, 网路, 数位, 太空人, 幽浮, 捷运, 呛声, 力挺, 糗, 出糗, 拜票, 谢票, 站台 ruǎntǐ, yìngtǐ, wǎnglù, shùwèi, tàikōngrén, yōufú, jiéyùn, qiàngshēng, lìtǐng, qiǔ, chūqiǔ, bàipiào, xièpiào, zhàntái software, hardware, network, digital, astronaut, UFO, rapid transit, provoke, in support of, embarrassing, make a fool of oneself, Canvass for votes, thank for votes, show up and support

Traditional Chinese edition

Published in 2001 by the Commercial Press (Hong Kong). It contains about 60,000 entries, all entries labeled with Zhuyin alongside Hanyu Pinyin.

  • Contemporary Chinese Dictionary (Traditional Chinese edition) (Chinese:現代漢語詞典(繁體版)) ISBN 9789620702112
  • Contemporary Chinese Dictionary - Traditional Chinese CD-ROM Version (Chinese:現代漢語詞典-繁體版光盤) ISBN 9789620702143

Controversies

Xiandai Hanyu Cidian had given discriminatory explanations to certain words and phrases. An example was the word "homosexuality" (simplified Chinese: 同性恋; traditional Chinese: 同性戀; pinyin: tóngxìngliàn). From the first edition in the 1970's (the entry in that edition is 同性恋爱 tóngxìng liàn'ài - literally 'same-sex love')[7] to the fifth edition in 2005 of Xiandai Hanyu Cidian, the definition of the term had been "determined" as "a type of psychological perversion".[8] In the 2012 6th edition & 2016 7th edition, the term was redefined as "sexual behaviour between persons of the same sex",[9][10] with no obvious discrimination in the content.

In the sixth edition, even though it contains a large number of new vocabulary, the word 同志 Tóngzhì ("comrade") which is an informal term for "a homosexual person", was not included in the dictionary. This could be because the term is often construed as a sarcastic reference to the Communist Party of China, according to Sociology Professor of the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.[11] The original term is a common form of political address in China, e.g. Comrade Hu Jintao, Comrade Wen Jiabao.

Some detractors complained that "Entries starting with the Western alphabet" section in the 6th edition allegedly violated the regulation - "Chinese language publications shall comply with the norms and standards of the Standard Spoken and Written Chinese language" in laws such as the and Publication Control Regulations of the State Council (State Council Act No. 594). The act of using English vocabulary in the main body of a Chinese dictionary, and using English to substitute for Chinese characters, according to these detractors, will cause the greatest damage to the Chinese characters since the romanization of Chinese, and will have a long-term negative impact on the language.[12]

The publisher, the Commercial Press, replied that the section is meant just for easy references when looking up the dictionary. The Commercial Press says that according a rule stated in a 2010 document by the State Council Office Secretariat, alphabetical entries recorded in Chinese dictionaries written by state authorities did not have corresponding Chinese translations. Hence, it is absolutely fine to include them in dictionaries.[13]

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ from Simplified Chinese Preface: "{...}商务印书馆出版的汉语词典,如《现代汉语词典》{...}" which translated in the English Preface reads: "{...}The Commercial Press's Chinese dictionaries such as A Dictionary of Current Chinese{...}" 精选汉英词典(第四版). Concise Chinese-English Dictionary (Fourth Edition). 牛津大学出版社与商务印书舘. Oxford University Press and The Commercial Press. 2010. 
  2. ^ Used in the compilation of a list of official pronunciations for the Putonghua Proficiency Test- Page 43: "本表参照{...}中国社会科学院语言研究所编辑的《现代汉语词典》(1996年7月修订第三版)编制。"普通话水平测试实施纲要. Putonghua Shuiping Ceshi Shishi Gangyao. (First Edition). 北京. Beijing: 商务印书馆. 2004. p. 43. ISBN 7-100-03996-7. 
  3. ^ 中国社会科学院语言研究所词典编辑室 Dictionary Editing Office, Institute of Linguistics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, ed. (1 September 2016). 现代汉语词典(第七版) [A Dictionary of Current Chinese (Seventh Edition)]. 北京. Beijing: 商务印书馆. The Commercial Press. p. 0 (page directly in front of page 1 of the lists of editors). ISBN 978-7-100-12450-8. 1994年第一届国家图书奖 
  4. ^ 中国科学院语言研究所词典编辑室 Dictionary Editing Office, Institute of Linguistics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, ed. (October 1977) [September 1973]. 现代汉语词典(试用本) [A Dictionary of Current Chinese (Probationary Edition)] (in Chinese). 北京. Beijing: 商务印书馆. The Commercial Press. 17017·91. 
  5. ^ 3,000 New Entries Added to the Most Popular Chinese Dictionary http://news.xinhuanet.com/politics/2012-07/15/c_112440614.htm
  6. ^ "什么是居民消费价格指数(CPI)?" (in Chinese). 
  7. ^ 中国科学院语言研究所词典编辑室 Dictionary Editing Office, Institute of Linguistics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, ed. (October 1977) [September 1973]. 现代汉语词典(试用本) [A Dictionary of Current Chinese (Probationary Edition)] (in Chinese). 北京. Beijing: 商务印书馆. The Commercial Press. p. 1029. 17017·91. 同性恋爱 tóngxìng liàn'ài 男子和男子或女子和女子之間发生的恋爱关系,是一种心理变态。 
  8. ^ 现代汉语词典(第五版). A Dictionary of Current Chinese (Fifth Edition). 北京. Beijing: 商务印书馆. The Commercial Press. June 2005. p. 1368. ISBN 978-7-100-04385-4. 同性恋 tóngxìngliàn 名 同性别的人之间的性爱行为,属于性心理障碍。 
  9. ^ 中国社会科学院语言研究所词典编辑室 Dictionary Editing Office, Institute of Linguistics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, ed. (June 2012). 现代汉语词典(第六版) [A Dictionary of Current Chinese (Sixth Edition)]. 北京. Beijing: 商务印书馆. The Commercial Press. p. 1306. ISBN 978-7-100-09354-5. 同性恋 tóngxìngliàn 名 同性别的人之间的性爱行为。 
  10. ^ 中国社会科学院语言研究所词典编辑室 Dictionary Editing Office, Institute of Linguistics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, ed. (1 September 2016). 现代汉语词典(第七版) [A Dictionary of Current Chinese (Seventh Edition)]. 北京. Beijing: 商务印书馆. The Commercial Press. p. 1314. ISBN 978-7-100-12450-8. 同性恋 tóngxìngliàn 名 同性别的人之间的性爱行为。 
  11. ^ Xiandai Hanyu Cidian sparked debates for not including the word tongzhi Archived September 1, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ Hundreds of researchers reported new edition of Xiandai Hanyu Cidian for violating the law
  13. ^ "Entries like 'NBA' included in Xiandai Hanyu Cidian allegedly broke the law - Reply: Baseless Accusations". 凤凰网. 29 August 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-30. 
  • Fifty years - Contemporary Chinese Dictionary (Chinese: 現代漢語詞典五十年) ISBN 7100042178