Web Server Gateway Interface

Jump to: navigation, search

The Web Server Gateway Interface (WSGI) is a specification for simple and universal interface between web servers and web applications or frameworks for the Python programming language. It was originally specified in Python Enhancement Proposal (PEP) 333[1] authored by Phillip J. Eby, and published on 7 December 2003. It has since been adopted as a standard for Python web application development. The latest version of the specification is v1.0.1, also known as PEP 3333, published on 26 September 2010.[2]


Python web frameworks had been a problem for new Python users since the choice of web framework would limit the choice of usable web servers, and vice versa. Python applications were often designed for only one of CGI, FastCGI, mod_python, or some other custom API of a specific web server.[3]

WSGI was created as a low-level interface between web servers and web applications or frameworks to promote common ground for portable web application development.[2]

Specification overview

The WSGI has two sides: the "server" or "gateway" side (often a web server such as Apache or Nginx), and the "application" or "framework" side (the Python script itself). To process a WSGI request, the server side executes the application and provides environment information and a callback function to the application side. The application processes the request, returning the response to the server side using the callback function it was provided.[citation needed]

Between the server and the application, there may be a WSGI middleware, which implements both sides of the API. The server receives a request from a client and forwards it to the middleware. After processing, it sends a request to the application. The application's response is forwarded by the middleware to the server and ultimately to the client. There may be multiple middlewares forming a stack of WSGI-compliant applications.[citation needed]

A "middleware" component can perform such functions as:[citation needed]

  • Routing a request to different application objects based on the target URL, after changing the environment variables accordingly.
  • Allowing multiple applications or frameworks to run side-by-side in the same process
  • Load balancing and remote processing, by forwarding requests and responses over a network
  • Performing content post-processing, such as applying XSLT stylesheets


Example application

A WSGI-compatible "Hello, World" application written in Python:

1 def application(environ, start_response):
2     start_response('200 OK', [('Content-Type', 'text/plain')])
3     yield 'Hello, World\n'


  • Line 1 defines a callable[4] named application, which takes two parameters, environ and start_response. environ is a dictionary containing environment variables in CGI. start_response is a callable taking two required parameters status and response_headers.
  • Line 2 calls start_response, specifying "200 OK" as the status and a "Content-Type" header.
  • Line 3 returns the body of the response as a string literal.

Example of calling an application

An example of calling an application and retrieving its response.[5] A web server gives a callback start_response to a web framework application. A start_response has an http protocol status, headers, and body. For Django, an HttpResponse object is returned.[6][7] The "environ" fragment consists of, for example, REQUEST_METHOD info.[8] Depending on this info, it might or might not call ("OPTIONS") this app.[citation needed]

def call_application(app, environ):
    body = []
    status_headers = [None, None]
    def start_response(status, headers):
        status_headers[:] = [status, headers]
        return body.append(status_headers)
    app_iter = app(environ, start_response)
        for item in app_iter:
        if hasattr(app_iter, 'close'):
    return status_headers[0], status_headers[1], ''.join(body)

status, headers, body = call_application(app, {...environ...})

WSGI-compatible applications and frameworks

Numerous web frameworks support WSGI:

Currently wrappers are available for FastCGI, CGI, SCGI, AJP (using flup), twisted.web, Apache (using mod_wsgi or mod_python), Nginx (using ngx_http_uwsgi_module),[23] and Microsoft IIS (using WFastCGI,[24] isapi-wsgi,[25] PyISAPIe,[26] or an ASP gateway).

WSGI and Python 3

The separation of binary and text data in Python 3 poses a problem for WSGI, as it specifies that header data should be strings, while it sometimes needs to be binary and sometimes text. This works in Python 2 where text and binary data both are kept in "string" variables, but in Python 3 binary data is kept in "bytes" variables and "string" variables are for unicode text data. An updated version of the WSGI specification that deals with this is PEP 3333.[27]

A reworked WSGI spec Web3 has also been proposed, specified in PEP444. This standard is an incompatible derivative of WSGI designed to work on Python 2.6, 2.7, 3.1+.[28]

See also


  1. ^ "PEP 333 - Python Web Server Gateway Interface v1.0". Python.org. Retrieved 2017-01-27. 
  2. ^ a b "PEP 3333 - Python Web Server Gateway Interface v1.0.1". Python.org. Retrieved 2017-01-27. 
  3. ^ "FrontPage - Python Wiki". Python.org. Retrieved 2017-01-27. 
  4. ^ i.e. "a function, method, class, or an instance with a __call__ method"
  5. ^ "Creating WSGI Middleware - Alan Christopher Thomas - Minted - PythonKC". YouTube. 2015-08-28. Retrieved 2017-01-27. 
  6. ^ "Request and response objects | Django documentation | Django". Docs.djangoproject.com. Retrieved 2017-01-27. 
  7. ^ django (1970-01-01). "django/response.py at master · django/django · GitHub". Github.com. Retrieved 2017-01-27. 
  8. ^ "PEP 333 - Python Web Server Gateway Interface v1.0". Python.org. Retrieved 2017-01-27. 
  9. ^ "プエラリアジェルの効果は?". Bobo.digicool.com. Retrieved 2017-01-27. 
  10. ^ "Django without mod_python, and WSGI support | Weblog | Django". Djangoproject.com. 2005-07-18. Retrieved 2017-01-27. 
  11. ^ "wsgi – WSGI server — Eventlet 0.20.1 documentation". Eventlet.net. Retrieved 2017-01-27. 
  12. ^ "Falcon - Bare-metal web API framework for Python". Retrieved 2017-10-22. 
  13. ^ "gevent-fastcgi : Python Package Index". Pypi.python.org. 2015-12-06. Retrieved 2017-01-27. 
  14. ^ "anomaly/prestans: A WSGI compliant REST micro-framework". GitHub.com. Retrieved 2017-01-27. 
  15. ^ "Google Code Archive - Long-term storage for Google Code Project Hosting". Code.google.com. Retrieved 2017-01-27. 
  16. ^ "Pycnic Framework". Pycnic.nullism.com. Retrieved 2017-01-27. 
  17. ^ "theintencity/restlite: Light-weight RESTful server tools in Python". GitHub.com. Retrieved 2017-01-27. 
  18. ^ "limodou/uliweb: Simple and easy use python web framework". GitHub.com. Retrieved 2017-01-27. 
  19. ^ "Welcome to". Web.py. 2009-09-11. Retrieved 2017-01-27. 
  20. ^ "weblayer — weblayer v0.4.3 documentation". Packages.python.org. Retrieved 2017-01-27. 
  21. ^ "Welcome | Werkzeug (The Python WSGI Utility Library)". Werkzeug.pocoo.org. Retrieved 2017-01-27. 
  22. ^ "CalDAV and CardDAV Server - A Simple Calendar and Contact Server". Radicale.org. Retrieved 2017-01-27. 
  23. ^ "Module ngx_http_uwsgi_module". Nginx.org. Retrieved 2017-01-27. 
  24. ^ "Python Tools for Visual Studio - Documentation". Pytools.codeplex.com. Retrieved 2017-01-27. 
  25. ^ "Google Code Archive - Long-term storage for Google Code Project Hosting". Code.google.com. Retrieved 2017-01-27. 
  26. ^ "Python ISAPI Extension for IIS download | SourceForge.net". Pyisapie.sourceforge.net. 2012-04-24. Retrieved 2017-01-27. 
  27. ^ Eby, P.J. (2010-09-26). "PEP 3333". Retrieved 2011-07-27. 
  28. ^ McDonough, Chris; Ronacher, Armin (2010-07-19). "PEP 444 – Python Web3 Interface". Retrieved 2010-09-20. 

External links