Spring Garden, Philadelphia
Spring Garden District
|Location||Roughly centered on Spring Garden Street and bounded by Fairmount Avenue, Broad Street, the Schuylkill River, and Vine Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|
|Architectural style||Late 19th And 20th Century Revivals, Late Victorian|
|NRHP Reference #||78002455|
|Added to NRHP||December 21, 1978|
Spring Garden is a neighborhood in central Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, bordering Center City on the north. Spring Garden is a neighborhood that combines diverse residential neighborhoods and significant cultural attractions. The residential areas on the north side of the neighborhood (North of Spring Garden Street) are composed mostly of brick and brownstone three-story townhouses built during the mid-to-late 19th century. The houses include townhouses in the Italianate style, Second Empire, Queen Anne, and Venetian Gothic. Many streets (including Green Street and Spring Garden Street) include "terraced" set ups, which include a small gardened plot, often raised, in front of the house. The residential areas to the south are dominated by taller, multi-family buildings built during the 20th century. The museum area, also to the south of Spring Garden Street, includes the Rodin Museum, the Central Library of Philadelphia, and the Barnes Museum.
- 1 Boundaries
- 2 Demographics
- 3 History
- 4 Infrastructure and government
- 5 Transportation
- 6 Education
- 7 Churches
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Bibliography
- 11 External links
Finkel defines Spring Garden as "North of Benjamin Franklin Parkway to Fairmount Avenue, Broad Street to Schuylkill River." The Philadelphia Information Locator Service list (augmented from the Finkel 1995 list), repeats Finkel's definition of the neighborhood's boundaries. One qualification that should be added is that this definition would have Spring Garden as extending deep into Center City, nearly all the way to City Hall. The other boundary that most would agree Finkel omitted is Vine Street.
The Spring Garden Civic Association limits its purview to only the northern half of the above definition, as "between Spring Garden Street and Fairmount Avenue and between Broad Street and Pennsylvania Avenue/Fairmount Park."
The neighborhood's main arterial road is Spring Garden Street, running east to west.
Spring Garden is within the 19130 ZIP code, which also includes Fairmount and Francisville. The 2000 census reported that the population within the 19130 ZIP code is 22,252. The racial composition of Spring Garden was 60% white, 30% African American, 3% Asian, and 7% Hispanic. Ten years later, the population of the 19130 ZIP code had increased by 10% to 24,870, an increase in population of 2,618, with a racial composition of 68.1% white, 21.4% black, and 5.6% Asian.
The neighborhood was originally part of the Northern Liberties, a township to the north of the city (which at that time was distinct from the other townships and municipalities within the County of Philadelphia). It was originally part of a manor (named Spingettsbury Farm) established by William Penn. During the late 1700s, the manor was split into two estates---"Bush Hill" (located to the east of 19th Street) and "The Hills" (located to the west of 19th Street). In the early 1800s, the estates were subdivided, and from 1850 to 1876, housing was developed in alignment with the city grid that had originally been established by William Penn.
The neighborhood name is quite old, going back many decades before Philadelphia's Act of Consolidation, when the area was part of the Spring Garden District of Philadelphia County, not yet part of the city. Finkel gives 1808 as the year it first appears in the written sources that he and his contributors consulted. The Philadelphia Information Locator Service list (augmented from the Finkel 1995 list), while repeating Finkel's definition of the neighborhood's boundaries, gives 1813 as the earliest year of use.
The neighborhood was once home to significant heavy industry. Many blocks of the neighborhood were once covered by the Baldwin Locomotive Works. Various Bement-related machine tool firms (William Bement & Son; Bement, Miles & Co; and then Niles-Bement-Pond) occupied the site where the Barnes Foundation museum now stands.
In the mid-to-late 20th century the gang 20Gs watched over ethnic Puerto Ricans in Spring Garden.
Infrastructure and government
The Spring Garden neighborhood is in the 15th Ward and the 8th Ward. The 8th Ward leaders in 2011 are Stephanie Singer (D) and Alber Doering (R); the 15th Ward leaders are William Greenlee (D) and Jason Brehouse (R). Generally, the northern part of Spring Garden (Spring Garden Street and north) is in the 15th Ward; the southern part is in the 8th Ward.
The Spring Garden neighborhood is in the 182d State House District and the 195th State House District. Generally, the northern part of Spring Garden (Spring Garden Street and north; roughly co-terminous with the portions of Spring Garden in the 15th Ward) is in the 195th State House District. In 2011, the representative from the 195th house district was Michelle F. Brownlee. Generally, the southern part of Spring Garden (the portion in the 8th Ward) is in the 182d State House District. In 2011, the representative from the 182d house district is Babette Josephs.
Much of the residential area of the Spring Garden neighborhood is included in Pennsylvania's First Congressional District by way of a narrow (4-6 block wide), Gerrymandered, "S"-shaped leg that extends from Broad Street to 24th Street. As of 2013, those residents of Spring Garden are represented by Bob Brady. The remaining portion of the Spring Garden is contained in Pennsylvania's Second Congressional District, which contains most of Philadelphia that sits west of Broad Street and south of Hunting Park Avenue. As of 2013, those residents of Spring Garden are represented by Chaka Fattah.
The USPS Fairmount Carrier Annex, located at 900 North 19th Street, serves the Spring Garden neighborhood.
Spring Garden is represented by the Spring Garden Civic Association. The Civic Association performs neighborhood maintenance services, such as occasional street sweeping and tree planting. Further, much of the neighborhood is included in The Spring Garden Historic District, intended to preserve the historic architecture of the neighborhood.
The neighborhood includes the Roberto Clemente Playground, which was renovated in 2011 and includes a "sprayground." The neighborhood also includes "The Spring Gardens" community garden which covers an entire city block. The block was cleared in 1996 and was turned into a community garden composed of over 180 garden plots that are cared for by neighborhood families.
As mentioned above, the main arterial road through Spring Garden is Spring Garden Street, which runs east and west. The neighborhood is bounded on the east by Broad Street, which runs north and south. The neighborhood is also bounded by Vine Street on the south, which contains an entrance to Interstate 676. On the west, the neighborhood is bounded by the Benjamin Franklin Parkway and Pennsylvania Avenue.
Spring Garden is served by several public transportation routes of "SEPTA", the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority.
Despite the neighborhood's importance to American railway history, most of its rail infrastructure is gone. The Philadelphia and Reading right-of-way, cut down below street level, is abandoned to woods in one portion and serves as parking in another.
The Broad Street Subway
On the east side of the neighborhood, the subway connects the neighborhood to North Philadelphia (for example, Temple University), City Hall, Walnut Street, and the Sports Complex. The Spring Garden Station, refurbished in 2011, is located at Broad Street and Spring Garden Street.
Several bus routes connect the neighborhood to Center City and other city neighborhoods:
The 33 Bus Route
The 33 bus route runs south through the neighborhood on 19th Street. It runs along Market eastward to Penn's Landing. The 33 returns, running west along John F. Kennedy Boulevard and north through the Spring Garden neighborhood on 20th Street.
During rush hour, the 33 south-bound runs every 5–8 minutes and takes about 10–12 minutes from 20th and Spring Garden to 16th and Market. Likewise, during rush hour, the 33 runs north-bound every 5–8 minutes and takes about 12–14 minutes to get from 15th & John F. Kennedy Boulevard to 20th & Spring Garden.
The 2 Bus Route
The 2 bus route runs south through the Spring Garden neighborhood on 17th Street. It continues south on 17th through Center City to South Philadelphia at Oregon Station. The 2 bus route returns north from South Philadelphia, through Center City, on 16th Street.
During rush hour, the 2 south bound runs every 10–13 minutes and takes 9–11 minutes to get from 17th and Spring Garden to 17th and Market. Likewise, during rush hour, the 2 runs north-bound every 11–13 minutes and takes about 10–13 minutes to get from 16th and Market to 16th and Spring Garden.
The 7 Bus Route
The 7 bus route runs south along 23rd Street from Brown Street to Spring Garden Street, where it turns southeast on Pennsylvania Avenue to 21st Street. From there, it heads south into Center City. At Market Street, it heads west to 23rd Street and then goes into South Philadelphia along 23rd.
The 48 Bus Route
The 48 bus route runs south along 23rd Street from Brown Street to Spring Garden Street, where it turns southeast on Pennsylvania Avenue to 21st Street. From there, it heads south into Center City. At Market Street, it heads east along Market to Front Street. Heading out of Center City, the 48 runs west bound along Arch Street to 22nd Street, where it turns north. Northbound, the 48 travels through the neighborhood on 22nd, crossing Spring Garden Street and Fairmount Avenue.
During rush hour, the 48 south bound runs every 4–6 minutes and takes 9–11 minutes to get from 23rd and Spring Garden to 16th and Market. Likewise, during rush hour, the 48 runs north-bound every 7–8 minutes and takes about 10–13 minutes to get from 22nd and Arch to 22nd and Spring Garden.
The 32 Bus Route
The 32 bus route runs southeast along Pennsylvania Avenue, crossing Fairmount Avenue and Spring Garden Street. At Hamilton Street, it heads east to 21st Street. From there, it heads south into Center City. At Market Street, it heads east along Market to Broad Street. From there it heads south along Broad Street to Washington Street, where it turns around. Heading north out of Center City, the 32 runs north bound along Broad Street, goes counter-clockwise around City Hall, and then heads east on John F. Kennedy Boulevard to 18th Street, where it turns north, returning to the Spring Garden neighborhood on its southern and western borders.
During rush hour, the 32 south bound runs every 10–11 minutes and takes 9–11 minutes to get from Pennsylvania Avenue and Spring Garden to 15th and Market. Likewise, during rush hour, the 32 runs north-bound every 10–13 minutes and takes about 10–13 minutes to get from 15th and John F. Kennedy Boulevard to Pennsylvania Avenue and Spring Garden Street.
The 43 Bus Route
The 43 bus route runs east and west along Spring Garden Street. Eastbound, the bus takes Spring Garden to Front Street and Delaware Avenue (near the Festival Pier). From there, it heads northbound to Fishtown and Port Richmond. Westbound, the 43 runs along Spring Garden, crosses the Schulykill to Lancaster Avenue, then north on Lancaster Avenue to Belmont Avenue in Parkside.
Spring Garden is in the School District of Philadelphia.
Spring Garden is located in the Laura Wheeler Waring Elementary School catchment, although a significant portion of the neighborhood's elementary-school children who attend public schools attend schools outside the catchment such as Alfred Greenfield Elementary School. Spring Garden is the home of the Benjamin Franklin High School; Spring Garden is also home of one of the top-ranked public high schools in the city and state, the Julia R. Masterman School at 1699 Spring Garden Street. Although students are, generally, automatically eligible to attend the neighborhood school, they may also attend other Philadelphia Schools (academic magnet schools, performing arts schools, and other out-of-catchment schools) through the school district's Voluntary Transfer Program.
Spring Garden is the home of the J. W. Hallahan Catholic Girls High School. For boys, the Roman Catholic High School is just outside the neighborhood, on the east side of Broad Street. Spring Garden is also the home of the St. Francis Xavier School, a Catholic lower- and middle-school.
Spring Garden is home to several churches, including St. Francis Xavier Church, at 24th and Green Streets, Olivet Covenant Presbyterian Church, at 22nd and Mount Vernon Streets, Greater Canaan Church of God in Christ, at 21st and Spring Garden, and United for Christ Ministries on 21st Street.
- National Park Service (2009-03-13). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
- Spina, Laura M. (ed.). "The Spring Garden Historic District: A Guide for Property Owners" (PDF). Philadelphia Historical Commission.
- "Rodin Museum". Rodin Museum. Retrieved 2013-10-31.
- "Central Library". Free Library of Philadelphia.
- "Philadelphia". The Barnes Foundation. 2012-05-19. Retrieved 2013-10-31.
- Finkel 1995:168.
- Philadelphia Information Locator Service: Philadelphia Neighborhoods and Place Names.
- "Spring Garden Civic Association". Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Cartographic Modeling Laboratory. "Philadelphia NIS neighborhoodBase". University of Pennsylvania.
- U.S. Census Bureau (2010). "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010". American FactFinder.
- "Gang protected Puerto Ricans for 50 years in Spring Garden". Philadelphia Inquirer. 2016-03-02. Retrieved 2016-11-11.
- "Committee of Seventy: Democratic Ward Leaders and Committeepeople". Committee of Seventy. 2010-05-18. Retrieved 2013-10-31.
- "Philadelphia Ward 15" (PDF). Committee of Seventy. 2011-09-06.
- "Philadelphia Ward 8" (PDF). Committee of Seventy. 2011-08-30.
- "Council President Darrell L. Clarke: 5th District". Philadelphia City Council.
- "The Pennsylvania House of Representatives". Legis.state.pa.us. Retrieved 2013-10-31.
- "Philadelphia House of Representatives Districts: 2001 Final Reapportionment Plan" (PDF). Committee of Seventy.
- "Pennsylvania House Member Biography". .legis.state.pa.us. Retrieved 2013-10-31.
- "Pennsylvania Senate District 1" (PDF). Committee of Seventy.
- "State Senator Larry Farnese".
- GovTrack. "Pennsylvania's 2nd Congressional District" (PDF).
- "Congressman Robert Brady".
- "Congressman Chaka Fattah : Home". Retrieved 2013-12-02.
- "Find Locations: Fairmount". United States Postal Service. Retrieved 2013-12-02.
- "Our Neighborhood". Spring Garden Civic Association. Retrieved 2013-12-02.
- "Services". Spring Garden Civic Association. Retrieved 2013-10-31.
- "Park photograph". Spring Garden Civic Association. Retrieved 2013-10-31.
- "NGA SPOTLIGHT: The Spring Gardens" (PDF). Well-Preserved. Neighborhood Gardens Association. 13 (2): 2. Summer 2005.
- "Broad Street Line" (PDF). Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority. 2013.
- "Spring Garden Station". Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority. Retrieved 2013-10-31.
- "33: Penn's Landing To 23rd-Venango" (PDF). Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority. 2013.
- "2: 20th-Johnston To Pulaski-Hunting Park" (PDF). Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority. 2013.
- "7: Pier 70 to 33rd-Dauphin" (PDF). Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority. 2013.
- "48: Front-Market To 27th-Allegheny" (PDF). Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority. 2013.
- "32: Broad-Carpenter To Ridge-Lyceum" (PDF). Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority. 2013.
- "43: Richmond-Cumberland to 50th-Parkside" (PDF). Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority. 2013.
- "Schools: K-8 Public Schools & Catchment Map". Kids in Center City Philadelphia. Center City District. Retrieved 2013-10-31.
- "Benjamin Franklin High School". School District of Philadelphia. Retrieved 2013-10-31.
- "Julia R. Masterman School". Kids in Center City Philadelphia. Central Philadelphia Development Corporation.
- "Pennsylvania High School Rankings: 11th Grade PSSA Math & PSSA Reading 2011-2012". School Digger. Retrieved 2013-12-02.
- "High School Selection". School District of Philadelphia. Retrieved 2013-12-02.
- "About". J. W. Hallahan Catholic Girls High School.
- "Home page". Roman Catholic High School. Retrieved 2013-10-31.
- "Saint Francis Xavier School". Retrieved 2013-12-02.
- Finkel, Kenneth (ed) (1995). Philadelphia Almanac and Citizens' Manual (1995 ed.). Philadelphia: Library Company of Philadelphia. pp. 156–170. ISBN 0-914076-89-2.
- Philadelphia Information Locator Service (May 20, 1998). "Philadelphia Neighborhoods and Place Names (based on Finkel 1995:156-170.)". City of Philadelphia. Retrieved 2007-05-30.