Sialkot

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Sialkot
سیالکوٹ
City
Nickname(s): The City of Iqbal
Sialkot
Sialkot
Location in Pakistan
Coordinates: 32°29′50″N 74°32′10″E / 32.49722°N 74.53611°E / 32.49722; 74.53611Coordinates: 32°29′50″N 74°32′10″E / 32.49722°N 74.53611°E / 32.49722; 74.53611
Country  Pakistan
Government
 • D.C.O Nadeem Sarwar
Area
 • Total 3,016 km2 (1,164 sq mi)
Elevation 256 m (840 ft)
Population (1998)[1]
 • Total 421,502
 • Density 140/km2 (360/sq mi)
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
Postal code 51310
Calling code 052
Number of Union councils 152
Sialkot Government Website

Sialkot (Punjabi, Urdu: سيالكوٹ‎) is the capital city of Sialkot District, located in the northeast of the Punjab, Pakistan. Sialkot is Pakistan's 12th most populous city.[2]

History of Sialkot

Main article: History of Sialkot

Medieval Sialkot

Sialkot became a part of the Muslim Sultanate of Delhi when the Afghan noble Sultan Shahab-ud-Din Muhammad Ghauri conquered Punjab in 1185. He was unable to conquer Lahore but left a garrison in Sialkot. Later Sultan Khusro Malik tried to capture the city but failed to do so. Sialkot then became a part of the Muslim Mughal Empire. The Mughal commander Usman Ghani Raza, advanced towards Delhi by way of Sialkot which capitulated to his armies. In the Babur Nama Zaheer-ud-Din Muhammad Babur records:

At the end of the Mughal dynasty the suburbs and the outlying districts and areas of Sialkot were left to themselves. Sialkot itself was appropriated by powerful families of Pashtuns from Multan, Afghanistan and Swat, the Kakayzai and Sherwani, and another family from Quetta. In 1748 the four districts of Sialkot, Sambrial, Pasrur and Daska were given to the Afghan Pashtun ruler Ahmed Shah Durrani and the area was amalgamated into the Afghan empire. After 1751 Ahmed Shah Durrani left his son Taimur to rule Lahore and the surrounding districts. During that time Raja Ranjit Deo of Jammu expanded his dominion over the peripheral areas but not the city of Sialkot. After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh invaded and occupied Sialkot[4] for about 40 years, though it was held by a Pashtun clan for some time during the decline of the Durrani regime.

Modern Sialkot

The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and the Pakistan Movement. After independence in 1947 the Hindu and Sikh minorities migrated to India while Muslim refugees from India settled in the Sialkot district and married into the local population. Sialkot has become one of the major industrial centres of Pakistan, well known for manufacture and export of surgical instruments, sports goods, leather goods and other light industry.

During the Indo-Pakistani war of 1965, when Pakistani troops arrived in Kashmir, the Indian Army counterattacked in the Sialkot Sector. The Pakistan Army successfully defended the city and the people of Sialkot came out in full force to support the troops.[5] In 1966 the Government of Pakistan awarded the Hilal-i-Istaqlal to the citizens of Sialkot, Lahore and Sargodha for their courage and bravery. The armoured battles in the Sialkot sector like the Battle of Chawinda were the most intense since the Second World War.[6]

During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 the region again witnessed bitter battles, most importantly, the Battle of Basantar. A major Indian counter-offensive came in this area and two Pakistani tank regiments, equipped with US Patton tanks, lost part of the region despite outnumbering the Indian First Armoured Corps, which was equipped with British Centurion tanks. Pakistani gains were made in Chamb sector, now called Iftikharabad after the commander, Major General Iftikhar Janjua, who later was the most senior officer to die fighting on the front line. Both the forces returned to international borders after the Simla Accord, except Chamb sector, which was located on the Line of Actual Control in the disputed territory of Kashmir.

Geography and climate

Sialkot features a humid subtropical climate (Cwa) under the Köppen climate classification, with four seasons. The “hot” or “pre-monsoon” from April to mid-June is very hot and dry, averaging over 38 °C or 100.4 °F with occasional thunderstorms, whilst the “wet” or “monsoon” from mid-June to mid-September is still very hot but oppressively humid, featuring thunderstorms on one day in three and being often over 40 °C (104 °F) during “breaks” in monsoon activity.

The post-monsoon season from mid-September to mid-November remains hot during the daytime but nights cool down substantially and the low humidity makes the heat more bearable. In the winter from mid-November to March, days are pleasantly mild to warm and occasionally heavy rainfalls occur from the passage of frontal cloudbands. The temperature during winter may drop to 0 °C or 32 °F, but maxima are very rarely less than 15 °C or 59 °F.

Climate data for Sialkot, Pakistan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 26.1
(79)
30.0
(86)
35.0
(95)
42.2
(108)
47.3
(117.1)
48.9
(120)
44.4
(111.9)
41.1
(106)
39.0
(102.2)
37.2
(99)
33.3
(91.9)
27.2
(81)
48.9
(120)
Average high °C (°F) 18.5
(65.3)
21.0
(69.8)
25.7
(78.3)
32.8
(91)
38.0
(100.4)
39.9
(103.8)
34.9
(94.8)
33.6
(92.5)
33.6
(92.5)
31.7
(89.1)
26.1
(79)
20.1
(68.2)
29.7
(85.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 11.6
(52.9)
13.8
(56.8)
18.6
(65.5)
25.0
(77)
30.0
(86)
32.2
(90)
29.8
(85.6)
29.0
(84.2)
27.9
(82.2)
23.7
(74.7)
17.8
(64)
12.8
(55)
22.6
(72.7)
Average low °C (°F) 5.0
(41)
7.1
(44.8)
11.8
(53.2)
17.3
(63.1)
22.0
(71.6)
25.1
(77.2)
25.1
(77.2)
24.8
(76.6)
22.3
(72.1)
16.0
(60.8)
9.6
(49.3)
5.6
(42.1)
16.0
(60.8)
Record low °C (°F) −1.1
(30)
−1.0
(30.2)
3.0
(37.4)
9.0
(48.2)
13.4
(56.1)
18.0
(64.4)
19.5
(67.1)
18.7
(65.7)
13.3
(55.9)
8.5
(47.3)
3.0
(37.4)
−0.6
(30.9)
−1.1
(30)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 41.1
(1.618)
43.8
(1.724)
53.7
(2.114)
30.1
(1.185)
28.0
(1.102)
65.6
(2.583)
288.4
(11.354)
259.1
(10.201)
94.1
(3.705)
14.5
(0.571)
9.1
(0.358)
30.4
(1.197)
957.9
(37.712)
Source: NOAA (1971–1990)[7]

Economy and industry

Sialkot is the world's largest producer of hand-sewed footballs, with local factories manufacturing 40~60 million footballs a year, amounting to roughly 70% of world production. There is a well-applied child labour ban, the Atlanta Agreement, in the industry since a 1997 outcry.[8]

During the colonial era British India's first bagpipe works opened in the city, today there are 20 pipe bands in the city.[9]

The 2014 FIFA World Cup's soccer balls were made by a Sialkot company[10]

Transport

Educational institutions

Sialkot has a fairly well-developed educational infrastructure that comprises a sub campus of University of Management and Technology, Lahore, a sub campus of University of Gujrat, a sub-campus of the Fatima Jinnah Women University, a sub-campus of the Virtual University of Pakistan, 8 Degree Colleges for Women, 5 Degree Colleges for Men, 2 Cadet Colleges, 6 Commerce Colleges, one Law College, one Medical College, one Homeopathic Medical College, one Nursing School, one Para-Medical School, one Poly-Technic Institute, with numerous Inter Colleges, Higher Secondary Schools and over 250 High Schools.

The Convent of Jesus and Mary, Sialkot was established in 1856. It was the first Catholic mission school in Punjab and the second of its kind in British India. Other eminent private-sector schools include the American School, the City School, the Beaconhouse School and Zaka Public School and College GulBahar.

The Murray College, Sialkot was established in 1889 as the Scotch Mission College by the Scottish missionaries belonging to the Church of Scotland Mission. It is one of the oldest educational institutions in Pakistan offering education up to the post-graduate level.

The Sialkot Medical College was established in 2002 with a sanction of Rs. 750 million. 30 seats were allocated for the year 2003 at the Services Institute of Medical Sciences, Lahore to be shifted to the Sialkot Medical College in 2004. However, because of local politics, the project was shelved. In April 2007, the President of Pakistan again announced an immediate construction of the Medical College building in Sialkot.

The University of Management & Technology Sialkot Campus is a sub campus of University of Management and Technology, Lahore & was formally opened in Sialkot on May 2, 2012.

Sports

The Sialkot Cricket Team are known as the Sialkot Stallions. They are National Champions and have won The Quaid-i-Azam Trophy during the 2008–2009 season and were also national champions in 2005–2006 when thy won The Quaid-i-Azam Trophy Golden League. Sialkot were runners-up in 2006–2007 and also won The ABN-AMRO Twenty-20 Cup in 2005–2006 and 2006–2007 and RBS Twenty-20 Cup 2007–2008 and then 2008–2009 to complete a title hat-trick. The team's home ground is Jinnah Stadium.

Sialkot annually hosts the Allama Iqbal Open Golf Championship at the Sialkot Golf Club. The Sialkot Hockey Stadium is located at Pasrur Road adjacent to the Gulshan-i-Iqbal Park Sialkot. The Sialkot Sports Complex is under construction at Daska Road with Tartan track facility for track running events. Sialkot Junior Hockey Team play in National Junior Hockey League. The Crescent Hockey Club has played in the Surjit Silver Jubilee hockey tournament at Jalandhar in 2008.

Sister Cities

Photos

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.pbs.gov.pk/sites/default/files//tables/POPULATION%20SIZE%20AND%20GROWTH%20OF%20MAJOR%20CITIES.pdf
  2. ^ http://www.pbs.gov.pk/sites/default/files//tables/POPULATION%20SIZE%20AND%20GROWTH%20OF%20MAJOR%20CITIES.pdf
  3. ^ Babur Nama Page 250 published by Penguin
  4. ^ Zutshi, Chitralekha (2003), Language of belonging: Islam, regional identity, and the making of Kashmir, Oxford University Press/Permanent Black. Pp. 359, ISBN 978-0-19-521939-5 
  5. ^ K Conboy, "Elite Forces of India and Pakistan" ISBN 1-85532-209-9, page 9
  6. ^ The India-Pakistan Air War of 1965, Synopsis. Retrieved 26 May 2008 at the Internet Archive
  7. ^ "Sialkot Climate Normals 1971–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 16 January 2013. 
  8. ^ Hasnain Kazim (16 March 2010). "The Football Stitchers of Sialkot". Spiegel International. Retrieved 7 November 2011. 
  9. ^ "Punjab pays tartan homage to Caledonia | World news | The Observer". Guardian. 25 April 2004. Retrieved 22 November 2013. 
  10. ^ http://www.thenews.com.pk/article-150235-Brazilian-ambassador-unveils-Pak-made-FIFA-soccer-ball

External links