Sialkot

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Sialkot
سیالکوٹ
City
Sialkot
Sialkot clock tower
Nickname(s): City of Iqbal
Sialkot
Sialkot
Sialkot
Sialkot
Location in Pakistan
Coordinates: 32°29′33″N 74°31′52″E / 32.49250°N 74.53111°E / 32.49250; 74.53111Coordinates: 32°29′33″N 74°31′52″E / 32.49250°N 74.53111°E / 32.49250; 74.53111
Country  Pakistan
Province Punjab
District Sialkot
Old name Sagala[1][2] or Sakala[3]
Government
 • D.C.O Hassan Javaid
Area
 • Total 19 km2 (7 sq mi)
Elevation 256 m (840 ft)
Population (2016)[4]
 • Total 920,000
 • Density 48,000/km2 (130,000/sq mi)
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
Postal code 51310
Calling code 052
Climate Cwa
Number of Union councils 152
Website http://www.sialkot.gov.pk

Sialkot (Punjabi and Urdu: سيالكوٹ‎) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan. Sialkot is Pakistan's 12th most populous city,[5] and is part of north-east Punjab — one of Pakistan's mostly highly industrialized regions.[6] Sialkot is believed to be site of ancient Sagala, a city razed by Alexander the Great in 326 BCE, and then made capital of the Indo-Greek kingdom by Menander I in the 2nd century BCE – a time during which the city greatly prospered as a major centre for trade and Buddhist thought.[7]

Sialkot has been noted by The Economist for its entrepreneurial spirit, and productive business climate.[8] The relatively small city exported approximately $2 billion worth of goods in 2015, or about 10% of Pakistan's total exports.[8] Sialkot is also home to the Sialkot International Airport – Pakistan's first privately owned public airport.[8]

History

Iqbal Manzil the residence of Allama Iqbal

Ancient Sagala

Sialkot is traditionally believed to have been founded by Raja Sela, uncle of the Pandava brothers of the Mahabharata,[9] and rebuilt by Raja Satya Vachan.[9]

Alexander the Great conquered upper Punjab in 326 BCE, and razed ancient Sialkot, where the Cathaeans had entrenched themselves. Ancient Sialkot was then made capital by the Indo-Greek king Menander I, of the Euthydemid dynasty, under whose reign the city greatly prospered as a major trading centre renowned for its silk.[7][9] Menander embraced Buddhism, in a process recorded in the Buddhist text Milinda Panha.

Medieval

Sialkot became a part of the medieval Sultanate of Delhi after Muhammad Ghauri conquered Punjab in 1185. Ghauri was unable to conquer the larger city of Lahore, but deemed Sialkot important enough to warrant a garrison.[10][9] Sialkot was laid siege to by Khusrau Malik, who tried unsuccessfully to capture the city.[10]

Mughal

Sialkot was captured by armies of the Mughal Empire in 1520,[11] when the Mughal commander Usman Ghani Raza advanced towards Delhi during the initial conquest of Babur. Babur recorded a battle with Gujjar raiders, who had attacked Sialkot, and allegedly mistreated its inhabitants.[12]

Post-Mughal

Following the collapse of the Mughal empire in the 18th century, Sialkot and its outlying districts were undefended and forced to defend itself. Sialkot city was appropriated by powerful families of Pashtuns from Multan and Afghanistan: the Kakayzais and Sherwanis. In 1748 the city and three nearby districts, Sambrial, Pasrur and Daska, were given to the Pashtun ruler Ahmed Shah Durrani, and later amalgamated into the Afghan empire. After 1751 Ahmed Shah Durrani left his son Taimur to rule Lahore and the surrounding districts. During that time Raja Ranjit Deo of Jammu expanded his dominion over the peripheral areas, but did not capture Sialkot.

The Sikh invaded and occupied Sialkot [13] for about 40 years. Sialkot, along with Punjab as a whole, was captured by the British following their victory over the Sikhs at the Battle of Gujrat in February 1849.

Modern Sialkot

The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and the Pakistan Movement. After independence in 1947 the Hindu and Sikh minorities migrated to India, while Muslim refugees from India settled in the Sialkot district and married into the local population. Sialkot has become one of the major industrial centres of Pakistan.

During the Indo-Pakistani war of 1965, when Pakistani troops arrived in Kashmir, the Indian Army counterattacked in the Sialkot Sector. The Pakistan Army successfully defended the city and the people of Sialkot came out in full force to support the troops.[14] In 1966 the Government of Pakistan awarded the Hilal-i-Istaqlal to the citizens of Sialkot, Lahore and Sargodha for their courage and bravery. The armoured battles in the Sialkot sector like the Battle of Chawinda were the most intense since the Second World War.[15]

Despite being cut off from its historic economic heartland in Kashmir, Sialkot has managed to position itself into one of Pakistan's most prosperous cities, exporting up to 10% of all Pakistani exports.[8]

Geography and climate

Sialkot features a humid subtropical climate (Cwa) under the Köppen climate classification, with four seasons.

The post-monsoon season from mid-September to mid-November remains hot during the daytime but nights cool down substantially and the low humidity makes the heat more bearable. In the winter from mid-November to March, days are pleasantly mild to warm and occasionally heavy rainfalls occur from the passage of frontal cloudbands. The temperature during winter may drop to 0 °C or 32 °F, but maxima are very rarely less than 15 °C or 59 °F.

Climate data for Sialkot, Pakistan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 26.1
(79)
30.0
(86)
35.0
(95)
42.2
(108)
47.3
(117.1)
48.9
(120)
44.4
(111.9)
41.1
(106)
39.0
(102.2)
37.2
(99)
33.3
(91.9)
27.2
(81)
48.9
(120)
Average high °C (°F) 18.5
(65.3)
21.0
(69.8)
25.7
(78.3)
32.8
(91)
38.0
(100.4)
39.9
(103.8)
34.9
(94.8)
33.6
(92.5)
33.6
(92.5)
31.7
(89.1)
26.1
(79)
20.1
(68.2)
29.7
(85.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 11.6
(52.9)
13.8
(56.8)
18.6
(65.5)
25.0
(77)
30.0
(86)
32.2
(90)
29.8
(85.6)
29.0
(84.2)
27.9
(82.2)
23.7
(74.7)
17.8
(64)
12.8
(55)
22.6
(72.7)
Average low °C (°F) 5.0
(41)
7.1
(44.8)
11.8
(53.2)
17.3
(63.1)
22.0
(71.6)
25.1
(77.2)
25.1
(77.2)
24.8
(76.6)
22.3
(72.1)
16.0
(60.8)
9.6
(49.3)
5.6
(42.1)
16.0
(60.8)
Record low °C (°F) −1.1
(30)
−1.0
(30.2)
3.0
(37.4)
9.0
(48.2)
13.4
(56.1)
18.0
(64.4)
19.5
(67.1)
18.7
(65.7)
13.3
(55.9)
8.5
(47.3)
3.0
(37.4)
−0.6
(30.9)
−1.1
(30)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 41.1
(1.618)
43.8
(1.724)
53.7
(2.114)
30.1
(1.185)
28.0
(1.102)
65.6
(2.583)
288.4
(11.354)
259.1
(10.201)
94.1
(3.705)
14.5
(0.571)
9.1
(0.358)
30.4
(1.197)
957.9
(37.712)
Source: NOAA (1971–1990)[16]

Economy and industry

Sialkot is the world's largest producer of hand-sewed footballs, with local factories manufacturing 40~60 million footballs a year, amounting to roughly 70% of world production. There is a well-applied child labour ban, the Atlanta Agreement, in the industry since a 1997 outcry.[17] As of 2015, Sialkot exported US$2 billion worth of goods which is equal to 9% of Pakistan's total exports (US$22 billion).[18]

During the colonial era British India's first bagpipe works opened in the city, today there are 20 pipe bands in the city.[19]

The 2014 FIFA World Cup's footballs were made by Forward Sports, a company based in Sialkot.[20]

The Sialkot International Airport, funded by local businesses, is the only private airport in Pakistan.[18]

Notable people from Sialkot

Sister cities

See also

References

  1. ^ Abdul Majeed Abid (28 December 2015). "Pakistan’s Greek connection". The Nation. Retrieved 17 March 2017. 
  2. ^ Tarn, William Woodthorpe. The Greeks in Bactria and India. Cambridge University Press. p. 171. ISBN 9781108009416. Retrieved 17 March 2017. 
  3. ^ Mushtaq Soofi (18 January 2013). "Ravi and Chenab: demons and lovers". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 17 March 2017. 
  4. ^ Demographia World Urban Areas. 13th Annual Edition: 2017:04
  5. ^ POPULATION SIZE AND GROWTH OF MAJOR CITIES. pbs.gov.pk
  6. ^ Azhar, Annus; Adil, Shahid. "Effect of Agglomeration on Socio-Economic Outcomes: A District Level Panel study of Punjab" (PDF). Pakistan Institute of Developmental Economics. Retrieved 2 June 2017. 
  7. ^ a b McEvilley, Thomas (2012). The Shape of Ancient Thought: Comparative Studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies. Skyhorse Publishing. ISBN 9781581159332. Retrieved 2 June 2017. 
  8. ^ a b c d "Pakistan’s business climate If you want it done right". The Economist. 27 October 2017. Retrieved 2 June 2017. 
  9. ^ a b c d Dhillon, Harish (2025). Janamsakhis: Ageless Stories, Timeless Values. Hay House, Inc. ISBN 9789384544843. Retrieved 3 June 2017.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  10. ^ a b Mehta, Jaswant Lal (1980). Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India, Volume 1. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 9788120706170. Retrieved 3 June 2017. 
  11. ^ Ahmed, Farooqui Salma (2011). A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century. Pearson Education India. ISBN 9788131732021. Retrieved 3 June 2017. 
  12. ^
  13. ^ Zutshi, Chitralekha (2003), Language of belonging: Islam, regional identity, and the making of Kashmir, Oxford University Press/Permanent Black. Pp. 359, ISBN 978-0-19-521939-5 
  14. ^ K Conboy, "Elite Forces of India and Pakistan" ISBN 1-85532-209-9, page 9
  15. ^ The India-Pakistan Air War of 1965, Synopsis. Retrieved 26 May 2008 at the Internet Archive
  16. ^ "Sialkot Climate Normals 1971–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 16 January 2013. 
  17. ^ Hasnain Kazim (16 March 2010). "The Football Stitchers of Sialkot". Spiegel International. Retrieved 7 November 2011. 
  18. ^ a b "How a small Pakistani city became a world-class manufacturing hub". The Economist. 29 October 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2016. 
  19. ^ "Punjab pays tartan homage to Caledonia | World news | The Observer". Guardian. 25 April 2004. Retrieved 22 November 2013. 
  20. ^ http://www.thenews.com.pk/article-150235-Brazilian-ambassador-unveils-Pak-made-FIFA-soccer-ball

External links