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The Shurangama or Śūraṅgama mantra is a dhāraṇī or long mantra of Buddhist practice in China, Japan and Korea. Although relatively unknown in modern Tibet, there are several Shurangama Mantra texts in the Tibetan Buddhist canon. It is associated with Tangmi and Shingon Buddhism.
The Mantra was, according to the opening chapter of the Śūraṅgama Sūtra, historically transmitted by Gautama Buddha to Manjusri to protect Ananda before he had become an arhat. It was again spoken by the Buddha before an assembly of various enlightened beings and dharmapalas.
Like the popular six-syllable mantra Om mani padme hum, and the Nīlakaṇṭha Dhāraṇī, the Shurangama mantra is synonymous with practices of Avalokiteśvara, an important bodhisattva in both East Asian Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism. The Shurangama Mantra also extensively references Buddhist deities such as the bodhisattvas Manjusri, Mahākāla, Sitatapatra Vajrapani and the Five Dhyani Buddhas, especially Bhaisajyaguru. It is often used for protection or purification for meditators and is considered to be part of Shingon Buddhism in Japan.
- 1 Names
- 2 Original Canonical Sources of the Shurangama Mantra
- 3 Introduction to the Shurangama Mantra
- 4 The History of the Shurangama Mantra Transmission and Translations
- 5 The Actual Siddham Words Shurangama Mantra
- 6 Story of transmission
- 7 Structure and comparison with other works
- 8 Notes
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Possible spellings and their romanizations include:
Also called the:
Sitâtapatra-mahā-pratyaṅgirā dhāranī 佛頂大白傘蓋陀羅尼經
The title is variously rendered in English as Great White Canopy Mantra, Great White Umbrella Mantra, or Mantra of Achala.
Korean Hangul [hg] 불정대백산개다라니경
[mc] Buljeong daebaeksangae darani gyeong
[mr] Pulchŏng tae paeksangae tarani kyŏng
[hb] Butchō dai byakusankai darani kyō
Vietnamese [qn] Phật đỉnh đại bạch tản cái đà la ni kinh
Mandarin Chinese [py] Dà fódǐng rúlái fàngguāng xīdáduōbōdá tuóluóní
[wg] Ta fo-ting ju-lai fang-kuang hsi-ta-tuo-po-ta t'o-lo-ni Mandarin Chinese
[mc] Dae buljeong yeorae banggwang sildaldabaldal darani
[mr] Taepulchŏng yŏrae panggwang sildaldabaltal tarani
[hb] Dai butchō nyorai hōkō shittatahattara darani
[qn] Đại phật đỉnh như lai phóng quang tất đát đa bát đát đà la ni
[Basic Meaning:] Dhāraṇī of Śitātapatra, Great Corona of All Tathāgatas, Radiating Light [The Great Queen of Vidyā called Aparājitā]
Sources: Ron Epstein, Buddhism A to Z, Buddhist Text Translation Society, 2003: pp. 191 – 192; Buddhist Chinese-Sanskrit Dictionary (Hirakawa), p. 0118, Fo Guang Dictionary, p. 2724.
Original Canonical Sources of the Shurangama Mantra
According to the Buddhist Tripitaka of Chinese and Tibetan versions, we find the Shurangama Mantra and its Sutra found as:
The Da foding rulai fangguang Xidaduobodaluo tuoluoni; Skt. Sarvatathāgataoṣṇīṣaśitātapatrā-nāmāparājitā-mahāpratyangirā-mahāvidyārājñī-nāma-dhāraṇī; Tibetan ('phags pa) De bshin gshegs pa'i gtsug tor nas byung ba'i gdugs dkar po can gshan gyi mi thub pa phir bzlog pa chen mo mchog tu grub pa shes bya ba'i gzungs; A dhāraṇī for avoiding disasters, evil spirits, etc.
There are five Chinese translations:
1 fasc. Taisho T 944b.19.102-105) Great Dhāraṇi of the Great Buddha-Corona 大佛頂大陀羅尼, tr. unknown.
In the esoteric Sūrangama Sūtra 大佛頂如來密因修證了義諸菩薩萬行首楞嚴經 (T 945), tr. Paramiti 般刺蜜帝.
1 fasc. (T 976.19.401-404) Dhāraṇī of the Great White Parasol Buddha-Corona 佛頂大白傘蓋陀羅尼經, translated from a separate Tibetan version [To.590/985, P.202/610] ['phags pa] De bshin gshegs pa thams cad kyi gtsug tor nas byung ba gdugs dkar po can shes bya ba gshan gyis mi thub ma phyir zlog pa'i rig sngags kyi rgyal mo chen mo) by Zhwa lu pa 沙羅巴.
1 fasc. (T 977.19.404-407) Dhāraṇī of the Great White Parasol 大白傘蓋總持陀羅尼經, tr. Zhenzhi 眞智.
Within the Shurangama Sutra's contents, the Siddham Sanskrit incantation (variously referred to as dharani or mantra) contained therein, known in Chinese as the "Lengyan Zhou" (楞嚴咒, "Shurangama Mantra"), is well-known and popularly chanted in East Asian Buddhism.
In Sanskrit, the dharani is known as the "Sitātapatroṣṇīṣa-dhāraṇī" (Chinese: 大白傘蓋陀羅尼; see nos. 944a/b, 976 and 977 in the Taisho Tripitaka). This is sometimes simplified in English to "White Canopy" "White Parasol" Dharani or more commonly in the Vajrayana tradition the Tibetan "Dug kar" is rendered into English as White Umbrella Deity Mantra. The dharani is not only extant in the Chinese text, but also in Sanskrit and Tibetan versions as well.
Introduction to the Shurangama Mantra
In the Shurangama Sutra, regarding the Great White Canopy Sheetatapatra line of the Shurangama Mantra, Shakyamuni Buddha states:
"If there are people who cannot put an end to their habits from the past, you should teach them to single-mindedly recite my ‘light atop the Buddha’s summit’ (Ushnisha) unsurpassed spiritual mantra, syi dan dwo bwo da la (the Central Asian rendering of the Sanskrit Sitatapatra)
The Shurangama Mantra, the longest in the Buddhist canon (Tripitaka), contains 5 major Section and 554 lines of Siddham Sanskrit of somewhat disparate topics, though with some overarching themes:
- The devotional Bhakti section.
- The Manjushri section (section 5) containing a large section on Ayurvedic Medicine Sanskrit medical terms for diseases and the seed syllable bija mantra secret words to prevent or diminish the effects of these ailments.
The History of the Shurangama Mantra Transmission and Translations
The currently popular version of the Shurangama Sutra and Mantra were translated and transliterated from Sanskrit to Chinese Hanzi during the Tang Dynasty by Bhikshiu Paramiti from Central India and reviewed by Shramana Meghashikara from Udyana, after Empress Wu Tsai Tian retired, in the first year of the Shen Lung Dynasty Reign period.
The Actual Siddham Words Shurangama Mantra
The Shurangama Mantra is available in two versions, Siddham Romanized Sanskrit and Devanagari Romanized Sanskrit. The classical outline for the Shurangama Sutra was compiled by Dharma Master Yuan Ying (Shurangama Sutra, Volume I, page xii) and categorizes the various parts of the Sutra text consisting of over 2,700 paragraphs to 1,676 entries.
“Ananda, this cluster of light atop the crown of the Buddha’s head, the secret gatha, Syi Dan Dwo Bwo Da La, with its subtle, wonderful divisions and phrases, gives birth to all the Buddhas of the ten directions. Because the Thus Come Ones of the ten directions use this mantra-heart, they realize unsurpassed, proper, and all-pervading knowledge and enlightenment.
Venerable Tripitaka Master Hsuan Hua of the City of 10000 Buddhas says in his Volume 6, 2002, pp. 115–116 of his Shurangama Sutra Commentary first lectured in 1968:
“Ananda, this cluster of light atop the crown of the Buddha’s head, the Secret Gatha, Syi Dan Dwo Bwo Da La, is again, the Great White Canopy, which can cover over the entire system of three thousand great thousand worlds to protect all the living beings in it. “Gatha” is a Sanskrit term which means “repetitive verses.” The Mantra is secret, and since some of its lines are repeated, it is referred to as the “secret gatha.” These “divisions and phrases” which comprise the Mantra are extremely rare and miraculous.
In the Shurangama Sutra the Buddha says of the Shurangama Mantra:
"Ananda, let any living being of any country in the world copy out this mantra in writing on materials native to his region, such as birch bark, pattra, plain paper, or white cotton cloth, and store it in a pouch containing incense. If that person wears the pouch on his body, or if he keeps a copy in his home, then you should know that even if he understands so little that he cannot recite it from memory, he will not be harmed by any poison during his entire life."
Sources: Buddhist Text Translation Society ()
Shurangama Sutra, Volume 6, Buddhist Text Translation Society, 2002: p. 113
Shurangama Sutra, Volume 6, 2002, pp. 89–91; pp. 91–103 (text); 113; TT 124-126; Shurangama Mantra Commentary, Volume I (intro), San Francisco, California: Dharma Realm Buddhist University, 1981, pp. 32–33, pp. 97–101, (ISBN 0-917512-69-3); Shurangama Mantra Commentary, Volume III: p. 34;
Story of transmission
According to Master Hsuan Hua, Arya Nalanda Monastery Abbot Bhikshu Nagarjuna Bodhisattva brings it in his Samadhi from the Nāga Dragon Realm. Then the Indian translator Bhikshiu Paramiti from India secretly brings the Sutra to China.
Structure and comparison with other works
Based on Sanskrit comparative research by Nalanda Tradition (source: http://www.Shurangama.com) Shramanera Losang Jinpa from the Alex Wayman 1977 Delhi Motilal Banarsidass Publishers book "Yoga of the Guhyasamaja Tantra - The Arcane Lore of Forty Verses" (ISBN 81-208-0872-X), the Shurangama Mantra contains all of the major 32 Tantric deities of the Nagarjuna introduced practice of the Guhyasamaja Highest Yoga Tantra Sadhana contained in the Geluk tradition of Tibetan Vajrayana Tantric Buddhism Buddhism. Thus, in many ways one could say the Shurangama Mantra is Highest Yoga Tantra Vajrayana Buddhism buried within the Chinese Chan and Pure Land traditions including references to many Iṣṭha-devatās Avalokiteshvara as Mahakala, Ganapati, Vajrayogini and Heruka Chakrasamvara in the form of Umapati and Rudra. Because of its vastness of deities including Brahma, Indra, Rudraya and his consort Uma, Narayana, Varuna, and Ganesh as Ganapati the Shurangama Mantra acts as a Buddhist bridge to devotional Hinduism.
- Hua, Gold Mountain Shramana Tripitaka Master Hsuan; Bhikshuni Rev. Heng Chih; Bhikshuni Rev. Heng Hsien; David Rounds; Ron Epstein; et al (2003). The Shurangama Sutra - Sutra Text and Supplements with Commentary by the Venerable Master Hsuan Hua - First Edition. Burlingame, California: Buddhist Text Translation Society. ISBN 0-88139-949-3., Volume 1, pp. 135-136
- Hsuan Hua, Volume 1, pp. 135-136
Surangama Sutra: A New Translation http://www.amazon.com/Surangama-Sutra-Translation-Commentary-Venerable/dp/0881399620/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1326821208&sr=1-1
- Buddhist texts
- Great Compassion Mantra (Nīlakantha dhāranī)
- Guhyasamāja tantra
- Mahayana sutras
- Usnisa Vijaya Dharani Sutra
- Hsuan Hua, tr. and commenter - annotater.  The Shurangama Sutra with Commentary (Volumes 1 to 8). Ukiah, California: Buddhist Text Translation Society and Dharma Realm Buddhist Association, 2002. ISBN 0-88139-949-3
- Vajra Bodhi Sea Magazine
- Description of VBS Journal
Shurangama in romanized Sanskrit
Shurangama Mantra in romanized Sanskrit script with Opening Verse in Chinese. Some English readers may find this particularly useful for devotional purposes. This is because it may seem easier to read directly from romanized Sanskrit script than from an English re-translation of the Chinese pinyin or other language translated versions of the Mantra.
Note that this version of Mantra has been revised and corrected by :
- adding allegedly missing content from studying a number of related scriptures, Mantras and Dharanis.
- improving alleged grammar and spelling mistakes with the help of Buddhist Sanskrit dictionaries.
(There is a difference in pronunciation between romanized Sanskrit syllables and that of English, e.g. th,gh in Sanskrit is not the same as th,gh in English) Information available from the following:
It may require the downloading of Sanskrit-Pali reading font which is available at
Siddham Sanskrit Mantra Sources
- Stevens, John . Sacred Calligraphy of the East. (Boston: Shambala, 1995)
- Siddham alphabet used for Shurangama Mantra on Omniglot
- Examples of Siddham mantras English and Chinese language website.
Sanskrit source documents
- Digital Sanskrit Buddhist Canon - Contains source copy of the Devanagari Shurangama Mantra
- Apte, Vaman Shivram (1965). The Practical Sanskrit Dictionary. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 81-208-0567-4. (fourth revised & enlarged edition).
-  Monier Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary, ISBN 0-19-864308-X.
- Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries (Searchable), Monier-Williams' Sanskrit-English Dictionary
- Capeller's Sanskrit-English Dictionary
- Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Searchable
- Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Searchable Digital Facsimile Edition on CD-ROM (Freeware CD)
- Works by Monier Monier-Williams at Project Gutenberg
Ven. Hsuan Hua, Cosmic Syllables Save the World (Tian Di Ling Wen Jiu Shi Jie), Buddhist Text Translation Society, 2006, 249 pages.
- http://www.bttsonline.org/product.aspx?pid=250 Cosmic Magic Syllables Save the World 天地靈文救世界 (English/Chinese 中英雙語) ISBN 0-88139-964-7
Master Hsuan Hua|Hua explains,
|“||"If just one person knows how to recite the Shurangama Mantra, this world will not become extinct, neither will the Dharma. But if the time comes when no one in the world knows how to recite the Shurangama Mantra, the Buddhadharma will then become extinct."||”|
- Yamantaka org
- Vajrabhairava (Yamantaka) practice support
- Wrathful Guardians of Buddhism - Aesthetics and Mythology
-  The Shurangama Mantra—The Efficacious Language of Heaven and Earth, Lectures by the Venerable Tripitaka Master Bhikshu Hsuan Hua, Burlingame, California: Buddhist Text Translation Society, Dharma Realm Buddhist University, Dharma Realm Buddhist Association, 1996.
-  and  The Śūraṅgama (Shurangama Sutra: A New Translation with Excerpts from the Commentary by the Venerable Master Hsuan Hua (Talmage, California: Buddhist Text Translation Society, 2009. ISBN 978-0-88139-962-2
- Common Bonding Practices for the Five Dhyana Buddha-Families