List of JVM languages

Jump to: navigation, search

This list of JVM Languages comprises notable computer programming languages that are used to produce computer software that runs on the Java virtual machine (JVM). Some of these languages are interpreted by a Java program, and some are compiled to Java bytecode and JIT-compiled during execution as regular Java programs to improve performance.

The JVM was initially designed to support only the programming language Java. However, as time passed, ever more languages were adapted or designed to run on the Java platform.

JVM languages

High-profile languages

Apart from the Java language, the most common or well-known other JVM languages are:

JVM implementations of existing languages

Language Java implementations
Arden Syntax Arden2ByteCode
COBOL Micro Focus Visual COBOL[2]
ColdFusion Markup Language (CFML) Adobe ColdFusion
Open BlueDragon
Cypher Neo4j[3]
JavaScript Rhino
Oberon Component Pascal
Mercury Mercury (Java grade)
Pascal Free Pascal
Perl 6 Rakudo Perl 6
PHP Quercus[4][5]
Prolog JIProlog
Python Jython
R Renjin
Rexx NetRexx
Ruby JRuby
Scheme Bigloo
Tcl Jacl
Visual Basic Jabaco[note 1]

New languages with JVM implementations

  • Ateji PX, an extension of Java for easy parallel programming on multicore, GPU, Grid and Cloud[10]
  • BeanShell, a scripting language which syntax is close to Java
  • Eclipse Ceylon, a Java competitor from Red Hat
  • CFML, a scripting language compiled to Java, used on the ColdFusion or Railo application servers
  • Quark Framework (CAL), a Haskell-inspired functional language
  • E-on-Java, object-oriented programming language for secure distributed computing
  • EO, a true object-oriented programming language[11]
  • Eta, pure, lazy, strongly typed functional programming language in the spirit of Haskell[12]
  • Fantom, a language built from the base to be portable across the JVM, .NET Common Language Runtime (CLR), and JavaScript[13]
  • Flow Java
  • Fortress, a language designed by Sun as a successor to Fortran, mainly for parallel scientific computing. Product development was taken over by Oracle when Sun was purchased. Oracle then stopped development in 2012 according to Dr. Dobb's.
  • Frege, a non-strict, pure functional programming language in the spirit of Haskell[14]
  • Golo, a simple, dynamic, weakly-typed language for the JVM developed at Institut national des sciences appliquées de Lyon, France, now an incubating project at the Eclipse Software Foundation.[15] [16] [17]
  • Gosu, an extensible type-system language compiled to Java bytecode
  • Ioke, a prototype-based language somewhat reminiscent of Io, with similarities to Ruby, Lisp and Smalltalk
  • Jelly
  • Join Java, a language that extends Java with join-calculus semantics
  • Joy
  • Judoscript
  • Mirah, a customizable language featuring type inference and a highly Ruby-inspired syntax[18][19]
  • NetLogo, a multi-agent language
  • Nice
  • Noop, a language built with testability as a major focus
  • Pizza, a superset of Java with function pointers and algebraic data types
  • Pnuts
  • Processing, a visualization and animation language and framework based on Java with a Java-like syntax
  • TDLang[20]
  • X10, a language designed by IBM, featuring constrained types and a focus on concurrency and distribution
  • Xtend, an object-oriented, functional, and imperative programming language built by the Eclipse foundation, featuring tight Java interoperability, with a focus on extension methods and lambdas, and rich tooling
  • Lux[21], a functional lisp with first-class types, powerful meta-programming capabilities and designed to be portable across multiple platforms, like the JVM and JavaScript. Inspired by Haskell, ML and Clojure.

See also


  1. ^ [6][7][8] is a freeware IDE in beta-testing since 2009, with a partly open source [9] Jabaco framework runtime. Jabaco compiles VB 6 syntax source to Java bytecode.


  1. ^ Wampler, Dean (15 January 2009). "Adopting New JVM Languages in the Enterprise (Updated)". Archived from the original on 22 May 2009. Retrieved 18 June 2009. 
  2. ^ "Visual COBOL Brochure" (PDF). Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  3. ^ "New on Neo4j: The Neo4j 2.3.0 Milestone 2 Release Is Here". Retrieved 20 February 2017. 
  4. ^ "Introducing Quercus, a Java based PHP". Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  5. ^ "Running PHP With Quercus in Sun Java System Web Server". Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  6. ^ "Jabaco entry at Basics section". Retrieved 2 July 2015. ]
  7. ^ "Article about Jabaco at German Pro-Linux publication". Retrieved 2 July 2015. ]
  8. ^ "Basic meet Java". Retrieved 26 February 2015. 
  9. ^ "Framework". Retrieved 26 February 2015. 
  10. ^ "Ateji PX: Java Parallel Programming Made Simple". Ateji. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  11. ^ "EO programming language". GitHub. Retrieved 18 October 2017. 
  12. ^ "The Eta Programming Language". Retrieved 10 May 2017. 
  13. ^ "Fantom Programming Language". Fantom. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  14. ^ "Frege". Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  15. ^ " - Golo – A Lightweight Dynamic Language for the JVM". Retrieved 2 July 2015. ]
  16. ^ "Golo nominated for JAX Awards 2014". Retrieved 2 July 2015. ]
  17. ^ "Golo entry at JAX Awards 2014". Retrieved 2 July 2015. ]
  18. ^ "The Mirah Programming Language". GitHub. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  19. ^ "Mirah". Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  20. ^ "TDLang - Type-Driven JVM Language". Asela Damian Perera. 
  21. ^ LuxLang (2017-06-30), lux: The Lux Programming Language, retrieved 2017-07-03 

External links