Kangar Union after fall of Western Turkic Khaganate, 659-750
||located in Ulutau mountains
||5,000,000 km² (1,930,511 sq mi)
Kangar union, Kazakh: Қaңғar Odaғy (Kanghar Odaghü) was a Turkic state in the territory of the entire modern Kazakhstan without Zhetysu. The ethnic name Kangar is a medieval name for the Kangly people, who are now part of the Kazakh, Uzbek, and Karakalpak nations. The Kangly (Qangly, Kang, Kangar, Kengeres, Kangdy, Kangarlyk, Kankalis) were a Turkic tribe known from the 2nd century BCE to past the 12th century CE. The Western Branch of Kangars after a defeat from Kypchaks of the Kimek Kaganate attacked and defeated Bulgars of the Khazar Kaganate, establishing the Kangar state in Eastern Europe (840-990 CE). The capital of the Kangar union was located in the Ulytau mountains.
A modern interpretation of the etymology is that ethnonym Kangar consists of two roots, Kang/Kang (Qang/Qang), a Turkic for "father, primogenitor", and ar "people, men", Avesta called population of ancient Khwarezm with the ethnonym Kang, adding a Persian plural affix -ha Kangha. An alternate etymology is that the word kangly in Old Turkic meant "wagon, vehicle", and is homonymous with the name of the Kangly tribe. This etymology is suggested by Turkic translations of Sanskrit texts, where Sanskrit words for "vehicle" and "chariot" were always translated with a word qanγli.
The Chinese Kangju, and the Kengeres' of the Orkhon inscriptions were known in the Islamic world and in the west as Bajanaks (Lat. Besenyo, Greek Patzinacs, Slavic Pechenezi, Pechenegs) whose self-designation was Kangar. Constantine Porphyrogenitus wrote that "Kangar" meant nobleness and bravery.
After the capture of Zhetysu by the Chinese, Kangars become independent from the Turkic Kaganate. They repulsed Chinese from the southern Kazakhstan and Syr Darya cities. The Syr Darya cities retained their autonomy. The Oguzes in the southern Kazakhstan, Kimaks in the Irtysh River valley, Cumans in Mugodjar, and Kypchaks in the northern Kazakhstan became the vassals of the Kangar union.
At the end of the 7th century the Syr Darya cities rebelled and formed an alliance with the Sogdiana. The revolt was successful, but the Moslem Arab armies attacked Sogdiana from the south. The revolt has waned, and Kangars consented to the continued autonomy of the Syr Darya cities.
Fall of the Union
At the beginning of the 8th century the Oghuz confederation and the city of Tashkent seceded from the Kangar union. The Arabs continued raiding Sygnakh, Khojent (Jend, Jent), Iasi, and other rich Kangar cities.
After the Arabs captured Sogdiana, they attacked the Kangar cities along the Syr Darya. The Arabs captured the southern Kazakhstan, and the Oguz confederation took control over the other Kangar cities along the Syr Darya. The Oguzes formed an alliance with the Kimak Kaganate. The Kangar Union dissolved. The western branch of the Kangars, known in the west under the name of their allied tribe of Pechenegs, captured the lands of the Khazar Kaganate, and created a Kangar successor state in the Eastern Europe.
- Gumilev L.N., History of Hun People, Moscow, 'Science', (In Russian) Ch.11.
- Kadyrbaev A.Sh. Chinese sources of Mongolian epoch about foreign political relations of Kazakhstan Türkic nomads (Kypchaks-Kangly) with peoples of Central Asia and Far East//Society and state in China. Moscow, 1982, (In Russian)
- Zuev Yu.A., Early Turks: Essays on history and ideology, Almaty, Daik-Press, 2002, (In Russian), ISBN 9985-4-4152-9
- ^ Tolstoi V.P. Origin of the Karakalpak people//KSIE, Moscow, 1947. p.75
- ^ M.Zakiev, Origin of Türks and Tatars, p.361, Moscow, "Insan", 2002, ISBN 5-85840-317-4
- ^ Clauson, 1965, p. 164, Gabain, 1952, p. 8, in Yu.Zuev, Early Turks: Essays on history and ideology, p.136
- ^ P.Golubovsky, Pechenegs, Torks, and Polovetses before Tatar invasion, SPb, 1884. p.55, in L.Gumilev, Ancient Türks, Ch.20 (In Russian)
- ^ Constantine Porphyrogenitus, De Administrando Imperio