Mitsubishi F-2

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F-2
Mitsubishi F-2B
Role Multirole fighter
National origin Japan / United States
Manufacturer Mitsubishi Heavy Industries / Lockheed Martin
First flight 7 October 1995
Introduction 2000
Status In service
Primary user Japan Air Self-Defense Force
Produced 1995–2011
Number built 94, plus 4 prototypes[1]
Unit cost
¥12 billion yen; $127 million (constant 2009 USD)[2]
Developed from General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon

The Mitsubishi F-2 is a multirole fighter derived from the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, and manufactured by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Lockheed Martin for the Japan Air Self-Defense Force, with a 60/40 split in manufacturing between Japan and the United States. Production started in 1996 and the first aircraft entered service in 2000. The first 76 aircraft entered service in 2008, with a total of 94 airframes produced. The first AESA Active electronically scanned array radar on a combat aircraft was the J/APG-1 introduced on the Mitsubishi F-2 in 1995.[2]

Development

US-Japan negotiations

The JASDF and its contractors considered developing a Japanese-designed, Japanese-produced replacement for the aging Mitsubishi F-1 fighter as early as 1981. A formal feasibility study commenced in 1985.[3] Japan's initial intentions to develop the aircraft domestically built upon Japan's previous success in producing the F-15J fighter under license from McDonnell Douglas.[4] Japanese defense contractors argued that they needed to build a new aircraft from the beginning in order to develop the skill of their engineers and, in turn, develop the Japanese aircraft industry.[5]

As the program began to take formal shape in 1985, several United States officials raised concerns that the program would result in an inferior aircraft, and would weaken the U.S.-Japan defense relationship. Pentagon officials advocated co-production or co-development of an aircraft based on the F-16 or F-18 platform, as they believed that Japan would not agree to buy U.S. aircraft.[3]

In early 1987, the United States, through Caspar Weinberger and other administration officials, began formally pressuring Japan to execute the project as a U.S.-Japan bilateral joint development.[6][4] The timing of this lobbying coincided with the height of "Japan bashing" in the United States: the Toshiba-Kongsberg scandal, in which Toshiba was found to have sold propeller milling machinery to the Soviet Union in violation of COCOM sanctions, became public in May 1987. Japan's negotiating stance changed amid the risk of deterioration in U.S.-Japan relations.[3]

The Reagan administration and Nakasone government announced the joint project in October 1987.[7][8] Under a memorandum of understanding signed in November 1988, General Dynamics would provide its F-16 Fighting Falcon technology to Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, and would handle up to 45 percent of the development work as a joint principal contractor.[4][7]

On the American side, senior officials in the State Department and Defense Department supported the project as a means for the U.S. to access Japanese technology and as a means of strengthening U.S.-Japan relations, but the Commerce Department and many members of Congress opposed the project due to the risk of strengthening Japan's ability to compete with U.S. aerospace firms.[6] Opponents in Congress argued that Japan should acquire American aircraft in order to offset the trade deficit between the two countries.[9] More than twenty members of the Senate demanded official review of the deal.[8]

After George H. W. Bush took office as president of the United States in January 1989, the U.S. government responded to domestic criticism of the deal by seeking "clarification" of the terms of the MOU, which the Japanese government viewed as an attempt to re-negotiate it. The Bush administration was particularly concerned with the risks of transferring technology to Japan.[6] Bush announced a revised agreement in April 1989, shortly before the resignation of his Japanese counterpart Noboru Takeshita, under which Japanese access to flight control and weapons control software was limited, while the U.S. was to have access to any new technology that Japan developed for the project.[10] American contractors were guaranteed at least 40% of the production for the program.[9] Congress ratified the deal in June 1989 while expressing official displeasure with it.[3]

Japanese lawmaker Shintaro Ishihara was a vocal critic of the final deal, writing in 1990 that "our Foreign Ministry and other Government agencies decided it was better to eat humble pie than incur Uncle Sam's wrath on yet another bilateral issue," and pointing out that "we give away our most advanced defense technology to the United States but pay licensing and patent fees for each piece of technology we use."[4]

Production

Work started in the FS-X program, initially given the company designation Mitsubishi SX-3.[11] The F-2 used the wing design of the F-16 Agile Falcon, but much of the electronics were further updated to 1990s standards. Japan selected the fighter to replace the and supplement its main air superiority fighter, the F-15J as well as the F-4EJ. The program involved technology transfer from the U.S. to Japan and vice versa. Responsibility for cost sharing was split 60% by Japan and 40% by the U.S.[12] Lockheed Martin would manufacture all the aft fuselages and wing leading-edge flaps and eight of the ten left-hand wingboxes.[13]

The F-2 program was controversial, because the unit cost, which includes development costs, is roughly four times that of a Block 50/52 F-16, which does not include development costs. Inclusion of development costs distorts the incremental unit cost (this happens with most modern military aircraft), though even at the planned procurement levels, the price per aircraft was somewhat high. The initial plan of 141 F-2s would have reduced the unit cost by up to US$10 million(7,5 million) per unit, not including reduced cost from mass production. As of 2008, 94 aircraft were planned.[1]

The F-2's maiden flight was on 7 October 1995. Later that year, the Japanese government approved an order for 141 (but that was soon cut to 130), to enter service by 1999; structural problems resulted in service entry being delayed until 2000. Because of issues with cost-efficiency, orders for the aircraft were curtailed to 98 (including four prototypes) in 2004.[citation needed] Flight testing of the four prototypes were conducted by the Japan Defense Agency at Gifu Air Field.[14]

The last of 94 production aircraft ordered under contract was delivered to the Defense Ministry on 27 September 2011.[15] During the roll-out ceremony of the last production F-2 fighter jet, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries confirmed that production of the F-2 would end and no more F-2 fighters will be produced by the manufacturer.[16] As of 2014 there are 61 single-seaters flying, and 21 two-seat trainers.[17]

Design

General Electric, Kawasaki, Honeywell, Raytheon, NEC, Hazeltine, and Kokusai Electric are among the primary component sub-contractors. Lockheed Martin supplies the aft fuselage, leading-edge slats, stores management system, a large portion of wingboxes (as part of two-way technology transfer agreements),[18] and other components.[19] Kawasaki builds the midsection of the fuselage, as well as the doors to the main wheel and the engine,[12] while forward fuselage and wings are built by Mitsubishi.[12] Avionics are supplied by Lockheed Martin, and the digital fly-by-wire system has been jointly developed by Japan Aviation Electric and Honeywell (formerly Allied Signal).[12] Contractors for communication systems and IFF interrogators include Raytheon, NEC, Hazeltine, and Kokusai Electric.[12] Final assembly is done in Japan, by MHI at its Komaki-South facility in Nagoya.

Larger wings give better payload and maneuverability in proportion of its thrust, but also tend to add weight to the airframe in various ways. More weight can have negative effects on acceleration, climbing, payload, and range. To make the larger wings lighter the skin, spars, ribs and cap of the wings were made from graphite-epoxy composite and co-cured in an autoclave. This was the first application of co-cured technology to a production tactical fighter.[12] This technology for the wings encountered some teething problems, but proved to be a leading-edge use of a technology that provides weight savings, improved range, and some stealth benefits. This technology was then transferred back to America, as part of the program’s industrial partnership.[20]

The F-2 has three display screens, including a liquid crystal display from Yokogawa.

F-2 and F-16 compared

Some differences in the F-2 from the F-16A:

Also, the F-2 is equipped with a drogue parachute, like the version of the F-16 used by South Korea, the Netherlands, Norway, Greece, Turkey, Indonesia, Taiwan, and Venezuela.

Operational history

On 7 February 2013, two Russian Air Force Sukhoi Su-27 fighters briefly entered Japanese airspace off Rishiri Island near Hokkaido, flying south over the Sea of Japan before turning back to the north.[21] Four F-2 fighters were scrambled to visually confirm the Russian planes,[22] warning them by radio to leave their airspace.[23] A photo taken by a JASDF pilot of one of the two Su-27s was released by the Japan Ministry of Defense.[24] Russia denied the incursion, saying the jets were making routine flights near the disputed Kuril Islands.[21]

On 22 August 2013, two Russian Tupolev Tu-142 Bear-F maritime patrol aircraft (MPA) entered Japanese airspace near the major southern island of Kyushu for less than 2 minutes. F-2 fighters were scrambled in response.[25]

Variants

F-2 taxiing during the 2009 Cope North exercise
  • XF-2A: Single-seat prototypes.
  • XF-2B: Two-seat prototypes.
  • F-2A: Single-seat fighter version.
  • F-2B: Two-seat training version.

Operators

 Japan
Air Defense Command
Air Training Command
Air Development and Test Command

Accidents and incidents

  • On 31 October 2007, an F-2B crashed during takeoff and subsequently caught fire at Nagoya Airfield in central Japan. The jet was being taken up on a test flight by Mitsubishi employees, after major maintenance and before being delivered to the JSDF. Both test pilots survived the incident with only minor injuries.[27] It was eventually determined that improper wiring caused the crash.[28][29]
  • As a result of the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, 18 F-2Bs belonging to the 21st Fighter Squadron at Matsushima Air Base were damaged or destroyed.[26][30] Of these 18, 5 were deemed beyond repair and have been scrapped. The remaining 13 F-2s are being repaired at the estimated cost of ¥80 billion(€490 million).[31] In the meantime, training duties carried out by the 21st Fighter Squadron have been transferred to other air bases.

Specifications (F-2A)

Mitsubishi F-2A
Mitsubishi AAM-4 air-to-air missile
JASDF F-2 carries XASM-3 at Gifu air base May 2017

Data from Wilson[32]

General characteristics

Performance

Armament

Avionics

See also

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b "Lockheed Martin Gets $250M F-2 Contract". 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-09. [dead link]
  2. ^ a b John Pike. "F-2 Support Fighter / FSX". Retrieved 1 February 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c d Spar, Debora (1991–1992). "Co-Developing the FSX Fighter: The Domestic Calculus of International Co-Operation". International Journal. 47: 265–292 – via HeinOnline. 
  4. ^ a b c d Ishihara, Shintaro (1990-01-14). "FSX - Japan's Last Bad Deal". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-10-11. 
  5. ^ Yates, Ronald E. (1987-05-17). "U.S., Japan Wrestle Over Who Will Build Jet". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2017-10-11. 
  6. ^ a b c Hiatt, Fred (1989-03-23). "JAPAN CALLS ON U.S. TO HONOR FSX JET PACT". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-10-11. 
  7. ^ a b "Restricting The Japanese Fighter Deal". Chicago Tribune. 1989-03-24. Retrieved 2017-10-11. 
  8. ^ a b Sanger, David E. (1989-02-20). "Technology Pact for Fighter Creates Dispute With Japan". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-10-11. 
  9. ^ a b "Bush Clears Way for FSX Fighter Deal With Japan". Los Angeles Times. 1989-04-30. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2017-10-11. 
  10. ^ LAUTER, DAVID; PINE, ART (1989-04-29). "U.S., Japan Agree on FSX Jet Fighter : Bush Announces Accord on $8-Billion Joint Project; Critics Vow Opposition". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2017-10-11. 
  11. ^ John W.R. Taylor, ed. (1988). Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1988-89. London: Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0 7106 0867 5. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f "F-2 Attack Fighter, Japan". Airforce-technology.com. Retrieved 22 Apr 2012. [unreliable source?]
  13. ^ Breen, Tom (21 October 1996). "Lockheed Martin starts beefing up work force for Japan's F-2". Defense Daily. Retrieved 27 May 2015 – via HighBeam Research. (Subscription required (help)). 
  14. ^ "Lockheed Martin continues work for Japan's F-2 fighter". Defense Daily. 23 April 1998. Retrieved 28 May 2015 – via HighBeam Research. (Subscription required (help)). 
  15. ^ Jiji Press, "Final F-2 fighter delivered to ASDF", Japan Times, 29 September 2011, p. 2.
  16. ^ "Mitsubishi Heavy Industries end production of F-2 fighter". AirForceWorld.com. Retrieved 1 Oct 2011. 
  17. ^ Hoyle, Craig (24 October 2014), "Big in Japan: Tokyo's Top 10 aircraft projects", Flightglobal, Reed Business Information 
  18. ^ "Mitsubishi F-2 Fighter Japan Technology Transfer Agreement". AirForceWorld.com. Retrieved 1 July 2011. 
  19. ^ Lockheed Martin Press Release April 8, 2008
  20. ^ "Lockheed & Mitsubishi's F-2 Fighter Partnership". Defenseindustrydaily.com. Retrieved 22 Apr 2012. 
  21. ^ a b Russian fighter jets 'breach Japan airspace', BBC News, 7 Feb 2013 
  22. ^ Japan accuses Russian jets of violating airspace, DAWN.COM, 7 Feb 2013, retrieved 9 Feb 2013 
  23. ^ Japan scrambles fighter jets as Russian warplanes intrude into airspace, Kuwait News Agency (KUNA), 7 Feb 2013, retrieved 10 Feb 2013 
  24. ^ Japan says 2 Russian fighters entered its airspace, Yahoo! News, 7 Feb 2013, retrieved 9 Feb 2013 
  25. ^ Japan scrambles jets, accusing Russian bombers of intrusion. Reuters, 22 August 2013.
  26. ^ a b "About the Flightglobal Group - Blogs Announcement - flightglobal.com". Flightglobal.com. Retrieved 1 February 2016. 
  27. ^ http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20071101a2.html Japan Times
  28. ^ "そうなのかな". Retrieved 1 February 2016. 
  29. ^ "JASDF F-2 Update - General F-16 forum". Retrieved 1 February 2016. 
  30. ^ http://www.asahi.com/national/update/0312/TKY201103110818.html
  31. ^ http://www.asahi.com/english/TKY201109150442.html
  32. ^ Wilson, Stewart. Combat Aircraft since 1945. Fyshwick, Australia: Aerospace Publications, 2000. p. 106. ISBN 1-875671-50-1.

Bibliography

External links