Etymological dictionary

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An etymological dictionary discusses the etymology of the words listed. Often, large dictionaries, such as the Oxford English Dictionary and Webster's, will contain some etymological information, without aspiring to focus on etymology.

Etymological dictionaries are the product of research in historical linguistics. For a large number of words in any language, the etymology will be uncertain, disputed, or simply unknown. In such cases, depending on the space available, an etymological dictionary will present various suggestions and perhaps make a judgement on their likelihood, and provide references to a full discussion in specialist literature.

The tradition of compiling "derivations" of words is pre-modern, found for example in Indian (nirukta), Arabic (al-ištiqāq) and also in Western tradition (in works such as the Etymologicum Magnum). Etymological dictionaries in the modern sense, however, appear only in the late 18th century (with 17th-century predecessors such as Vossius' 1662 Etymologicum linguae Latinae or Stephen Skinner's 1671 Etymologicon Linguae Anglicanae), with the understanding of sound laws and language change and their production was an important task of the "golden age of philology" in the 19th century.

Print

  • English
    • Robert K. Barnhart & Sol Steinmetz, eds. Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology. Bronx, NY: H. W. Wilson, 1988 (reprinted as Chambers Dictionary of Etymology).
    • C.T. Onions, ed. The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1966.
    • George William Lemon the English etymologist and author of A derivative dictionary of the English language: in two alphabets, tracing the etymology of those English words, that are derived I. From the Greek, and Latin languages; II. From the Saxon, and other Northern tongues. London, Printed for G. Robinson (1783).
    • Eric Partridge, Origins: A short etymological dictionary of Modern English. New York: Greenwich House, 1958 (reprint: 1959, 1961, 1966, 2008).
  • Albanian
    • Vladimir Orel. Albanian Etymological Dictionary. Leiden: Brill, 1998.
    • Eqrem Çabej. Studime etimologjike në fushë të shqipes. 7 vols. Tirana: Akademia et Shkencave e Republikës Popullore të Shqipërisë, Instituti i Gjuhësisë dhe i Letërsisë, 1976–2014.
  • Breton
    • Albert Deshayes. Dictionnaire étymologique du breton. Douarnenez: Le Chasse-Marée, 2003.
  • Chinese
    • Axel Schuessler. ABC Etymological Dictionary of Old Chinese. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2007.
  • Czech
    • Holub, J., Kopečný, F. Etymologický slovník jazyka českého. Prague: Státní nakladatelství učebnic (1952) [1933]
    • Machek, Václav. Etymologický slovník jazyka českého. Prague: NLN, Nakladatelství Lidové noviny (2010 [1971]) [1957]
    • Holub, J. & S. Lyer. Stručný etymologický slovník jazyka českého se zvláštním zřetelem k slovům kulturním a cizím. Prague: SPN (1992) [1967]
    • Rejzek, Jiří. Český etymologický slovník. Voznice: LEDA (2012 [2001])
  • Dutch
    • Marlies Philippa, Frans Debrabandere, A. Quak, T. Schoonheim, & Nicoline van der Sijs, eds. Etymologisch woordenboek van het Nederlands (EWN). 4 vols. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2003–09.
    • Jan de Vries. Nederlands etymologisch woordenboek (NEW), 2nd edn. Leiden: Brill, 1971.
  • Finnish
  • French
    • Alain Rey, ed. Dictionnaire historique de la langue française, 2nd edn. 3 vols. Paris: Le Robert, 1998 (1st edn. 2 vols., 1992).
    • Emmanuèle Baumgartner & Philippe Ménard. Dictionnaire étymologique et historique de la langue française. Paris: Livre de Poche, 1996.
    • Jacqueline Picoche. Dictionnaire étymologique du français. Paris: Le Robert, 1971.
    • Albert Dauzat, Jean Dubois, & Henri Mitterand. Nouveau dictionnaire étymologique et historique, 2nd edn. Paris: Larousse, 1964 (1st edn. 1938).
    • Oscar Bloch & Walther von Wartburg. Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue française, 2nd edn. Paris: PUF, 1950 (1st edn. 1932).
    • Walther von Wartburg & Hans-Erich Keller, eds. Französisches etymologisches Wörterbuch: Eine Darstellung des gallormanischen Sprachschatzes (FEW). 25 vols. Bonn: Klopp; Heidelberg: Carl Winter; Leipzig–Berlin: Teubner; Basel: R. G. Zbinden, 1922–67 (some vols. have since been revised).
  • German
    • Elmar Seebold, ed. Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache [ Etymological Dictionary of the German Language ], 26th edn. Originally by Friedrich Kluge. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2013 (1st edn. 1883).
    • Wolfgang Pfeifer, ed. Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Deutschen, 7th edn. Munich: dtv, 2004 (1st edn., 1995).
    • Gunther Drosdowsi, Paul Grebe, et al., eds. Duden, Das Herkunftswörterbuch: Etymologie der deutschen Sprache, 5th edn. Berlin: Duden, 2013.
    • Sabine Krome, ed. Wahrig, Herkunftswörterbuch, 5th edn. Originally by Ursula Hermann. Gütersloh–Munich: Wissenmedia, 2009.
  • Greek
    • Ancient Greek
      • Robert S. P. Beekes. Etymological Dictionary of Greek. 2 vols. Leiden: Brill, 2010.
      • Pierre Chantraine. Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque: Histoire des mots, revised 2nd edn. 2 vols. Revised by Jean Taillardat, Olivier Masson, & Jean-Louis Perpillou. Paris: Klincksieck, 2009 (2nd edn. 1994; 1st edn. 1968–80 in 4 vols.).
      • Hjalmar Frisk. Griechisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. 3 vols. Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1960–72.
  • Hittite
    • Alwin Kloekhorst. Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon. Leiden–Boston: Brill, 2008.
    • Jaan Puhvel. Hittite Etymological Dictionary. 10 vols. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1984–present.
  • Icelandic
    • Ásgeir Blöndal Magnússon, Íslensk orðsifjabók
  • Italian
    • Alberto Nocentini. L’Etimologico: vocabolario della lingua italiana. With the collaboration of Alessandro Parenti. Milan: Mondadori, 2010.
    • Manlio Cortelazzo & Paolo Zolli. Dizionario etimologico della lingua italiana (DELIN), 2nd edn. Bologna: Zanichelli, 2004 (1st edn. 5 vols., 1979-1988).
  • Latin
    • Michiel de Vaan. Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the Other Italic Languages. Leiden: Brill, 2008.
    • Alois Walde. Lateinisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, 3rd edn. 2 vols. Revised by Johann Baptist Hofmann. Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1965-72 (1st edn. 1906).
    • Alfred Ernout & Antoine Meillet. Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue latine: Histoire des mots (DELL), 4th edn. 2 vols. Paris: Klincksieck, 1959–60 (1st edn. 1932).
  • Latvian
    • Konstantīns Karulis. Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca. Rīga: AVOTS, 1992.
  • Lithuanian
    • Ernst Fraenkel, Annemarie Slupski, Erich Hofmann, & Eberhard Tangl, eds. Litauisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (LitEW). 2 vols. Heidelberg: Carl Winter; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1962–65.
  • Old Irish
    • Sanas Cormaic, encyclopedic dictionary, 9th or 10th century
    • Joseph Vendryes, Lexique étymologique de l'irlandais ancien (first volume 1959; still incomplete), Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies and CNRC Éditions, Paris.
  • Old Prussian
  • Polish
  • Portuguese
  • Russian
    • Vladimir Orel. Russian Etymological Dictionary. 4 vols. Edited by Vitaly Shevoroshkin & Cindy Drover-Davidson. Calgary, Canada: Octavia Press (vols. 1-3) & Theophania Publishing (vol. 4), 2007-2011.
    • Terence Wade. Russian Etymological Dictionary. Bristol: Bristol Classical Press, 1996.
    • Max Vasmer. Russisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. 3 vols. Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1953-58.
  • Sanskrit
    • Manfred Mayrhofer. Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen. 3 vols. Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1992/1998/2001.
  • Sardinian
    • Max Leopold Wagner. Dizionario etimologico sardo (DES). 2 vols. Revised by Giulio Paulis. Nuoro: Ilisso, 2008 (1st edn. 3 vols., Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1960–4).
    • Massimo Pittau. Dizionario della lingua sarda fraseologico ed etimologico (DILS). 2 vols. Cagliari: E. Gasperini, 2000–03.
  • Scots
    • John Jamieson, An Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language (1808), revised 1879–97.
  • Serbo-Croatian
    • Alemko Gluhak. Hrvatski etimološki rječnik. Zagreb: August Cesarec, 1993.
    • Petar Skok. Etimologijski rječnik hrvatskoga ili srpskoga jezika [Etymological Dictionary of the Croatian or the Serbian Language]. 4 vols. Zagreb: Jugoslavenska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti, 1971–4.
  • Slovene
  • Spanish
    • Joan Corominas. Diccionario crítico etimológico castellano e hispánico, 6 vols. Madrid: Gredos, 1980–91 (ISBN 84-249-1362-0)
    • Guido Gómez de Silva. Elsevier's Concise Spanish Etymological Dictionary. Amsterdam–NY: Elsevier Sciences, 1985. (ISBN 968-16-2812-8)
    • Edward A. Roberts. A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Spanish Language with Families of Words Based on Indo-European Roots, 2 vols. (vol. 1: A-G; 2: H-Z). Xlibris, 2014.
  • Swedish
    • Elof Hellquist. Svensk etymologisk ordbok. Lund: Gleerups, 1922-1980. (ISBN 91-40-01978-0)
    • Birgitta Ernby. Norstedts etymologiska ordbok. Stockholm, Norstedts Förlag, 2008. (ISBN 978-91-7227-429-7)
  • Turkish
    • Sevan Nişanyan. Sözlerin soyağacı: çağdaş Türkçenin etimolojik sözlüğü. Beyoğlu (Istanbul): Adam, 2002.
    • Gerard Leslie Makins Clauson. An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth-Century Turkish. London: Oxford University Press, 1972.

Language families

  • Afro-Asiatic
    • Vladimir Orel & Olga V. Stolbova. Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary: Materials for a Reconstruction. Leiden: Brill, 1995.
  • Altaic
    • Sergei Starostin, Anna Dybo, & Oleg Mudrak. Etymological Dictionary of the Altaic Languages. Leiden: Brill, 2003.
  • Celtic
    • Ranko Matasović. Etymological dictionary of Proto-Celtic. Leiden: Brill, 2009.
  • Dravidian
    • Thomas D. Burrows & Murray Barnson Emeneau. A Dravidian Etymological Dictionary (DED), 2nd edn. Oxford: Munshirm Manoharlal / Clarendon Press, 1984 (1st edn. 1961).
  • Germanic
    • Guus Kroonen. Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic. Leiden: Brill, 2013.
    • Vladimir Orel. A Handbook of Germanic Etymology. Leiden: Brill, 2003.
  • Proto-Indo-European
    • George E. Dunkel. Lexikon der indogermanischen Partikeln und Pronominalstämme (LIPP). Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 2014.
    • Dagmar S. Wodtko, Britta Irslinger, & Carolin Schneider. Nomina im indogermanischen Lexikon (NIL). Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 2008.
    • Helmut Rix. Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben: Die Wurzeln und ihre Primärstammbildungen (LIV²), 2nd edn. Wiesbaden: Reichert Verlag, 2001.
    • Julius Pokorny. Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, 2 vols. Tübingen–Berne–Munich: A. Francke, 1957/1969 (5th edn., 2005).
      • Reworking of: Alois Walde & Julius Pokorny. Vergleichendes Wörterbuch der indogermanischen Sprachen. 3 vols. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1927–32 (reprint 1973).
    • Carl Darling Buck. A dictionary of selected synonyms in the principal Indo-European languages. University of Chicago Press, 1949 (paperback edition 1988).
  • Uralic
    • Károly Rédei, ed. Uralisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (UEW). 3 vols. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1986-91.

Online

Indo-European languages

  • [1] – Croatian Etymological Dictionary
  • [2] – An Online Etymological Dictionary of the English language compiled by Douglas Harper
  • [3] – Ancient Greek Etymological Dictionary by H. Frisk
  • [4] – An Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon by Alwin Kloekhorst
  • [5] – Indo-European Etymological Dictionary by S. A. Starostin et al.
  • [6] – Gaelic Etymological Dictionary by A. MacBain
  • [7] – Gothic Etymological Dictionary by Andras Rajki
  • [8] – Nepali Etymological Dictionary by R. L. Turner
  • [9] – Romanian Etymological Dictionary
  • [10] – Russian Etymological Dictionary by Max Vasmer, Heidelberg (1962), 4 volumes
  • [11] – Swedish Etymological Dictionary by Elof Hellquist

Afroasiatic languages

  • [12] – Afroasiatic Etymological Dictionary by S. A. Starostin et al.
  • [13] – Arabic Etymological Dictionary by Andras Rajki
  • [14] – Hebrew Etymological Dictionary by Isaac Fried

Altaic languages

  • [15] – Altaic Etymological Dictionary by S. A. Starostin et al.
  • [16] – Chuvash Etymological Dictionary by M. R. Fedotov
  • [17] – Gagauz Etymological Dictionary
  • [18] – Mongolian Etymological Dictionary
  • [19] – Turkish Etymological Dictionary by Sevan Nişanyan "Sözlerin Soyağacı – Çağdaş Türkçe'nin Etimolojik Sözlüğü" (Third ed. Adam Y. Istanbul 2007)

Austronesian languages

  • [20] – Austronesian Comparative Dictionary by R. A. Blust
  • [21] – Indonesian Etymological Dictionary by S. M. Zain
  • [22] – Maori Etymological Dictionary by E. Tregear
  • [23] – Waray Etymological Dictionary

Bantu languages

  • [24] – Bantu Etymological Dictionary
  • [25] – Swahili Etymological Dictionary

Creole languages and conlangs

  • [26] – Bislama Dictionary with etymologies by Andras Rajki
  • [27] – Esperanto Etymological Dictionary
  • [28] – Morisyen Etymological Dictionary
  • [29] – Volapük Dictionary

Uralic languages

  • [30] – Uralic Etymological Dictionary by S. A. Starostin et al.
  • [31] – Estonian Etymological Dictionary by Iris Metsmägi, Meeli Sedrik, Sven-Erik Soosaar
  • [32] – Finnish Etymological Dictionary
  • [33] – Hungarian Dictionary with etymologies by Andras Rajki
  • [34] – Saami Etymological Dictionary

Other languages and language families

  • [35] – Basque Etymological Dictionary
  • [36] – Dravidian Etymological Dictionary by T. Burrow
  • [37] – Kartvelian Etymological Dictionary by G. A. Klimov
  • [38] – Mayan Etymological Dictionary by T. Kaufman and J. Justeson
  • [39] – Munda Etymological Dictionary by D. Stampe & al.
  • [40] – North Caucasian Etymological Dictionary by S. A. Starostin et al.
  • [41] – Thai Etymological Dictionary by M. Haas


External links