A charabanc or "char-à-banc" (pron.: //) is a type of horse-drawn vehicle or early motor coach, usually open-topped, common in Britain during the early part of the 20th century. It was especially popular for sight-seeing or "works outings" to the country or the seaside, organised by businesses once a year. The name derives from the French char à bancs ("carriage with wooden benches"), the vehicle having originated in France in the early 19th century.
Although the vehicle has not been common on the roads since the 1920s, a few signs survive from the era; a notable example at Wookey Hole in Somerset warns that the road to the neighbouring village of Easton is unsuitable for charabancs.
Introduced in the 1840s as a French sporting vehicle, the char à bancs was popular at race meetings and for hunting or shooting parties. It could be pulled by a four-in-hand team of horses or a pair in pole gear. It had two or more rows of crosswise bench seats, plus a slightly lower rear seat for a groom, and most also had a slatted trunk for luggage. Initially used by the wealthy, they were later enlarged with more seats for school or works excursions and tourist transport, as a cheaper version of the tourist coach. The first charabanc in Britain was presented to Queen Victoria by Louis Philippe of France and is preserved in the Royal Mews.
Before World War I, motor charabancs were used mainly for day trips, as they were not comfortable enough for longer journeys, and were largely replaced by motor buses in the 1920s.
The charabanc of the 1920s tended to last only a few years. It was normal at the time for the body to be built separately to the motor chassis, and a number were fitted in summer only; a second goods body would be fitted in its place in winter to keep the vehicle occupied.
Charabancs normally were open, with a large canvas folding hood stowed at the rear in case of rain, like a convertible motor car. If rain started, this had to be pulled into position, a very heavy task, and it was considered honourable for the male members of the touring party to assist in getting it into position. The side windows would be of mica (a thin layer of quartz-like stone).
The charabanc offered little or no protection to the passengers in the event of an overturning accident, they had a high centre of gravity when loaded (and particularly if overloaded), and they often traversed the steep and winding roads leading to the coastal villages popular with tourists. These factors led to a number of fatal accidents which contributed to their early demise.
The word charabanc (pronounced Shar-a-bang) was still being used even into the very early 1960s. Factory day outings (Annual Works Trips) during these times were quite common for workers, especially for those from the northern weaving mill towns of Lancashire and Yorkshire. The 1950s were relatively hard times due to national recovery being slow after the Second World War; rationing was still evident and annual holidays (i.e., Wakes weeks) had not really become established for poorer workers such as weavers and spinners, so a day's outing to the seaside was a rare treat and all that some workers with large families could afford. "Charabanc trips" were usually only for adults, again due to finance. Occasionally the mill owner would help to pay for these outings; however, this was not always the case. The charabancs, or coaches, were pretty basic vehicles; noisy, uncomfortable and often poorly upholstered with low-backed seats and used mainly for short journeys to the nearest resort town or the races. Some workingmen's clubs also organised days out and these trips were often subsidised by the clubs themselves from membership subscriptions that had been paid throughout the year. A few pence a week would be paid to a club or mill trip organiser and marked down in a notebook. This would be paid out to the saver on the day of the trip as spending money on the day. This day out would often be the highlight of the year for some workers and the only chance to get away from the smog and grime of the busy mill towns. Later, in the late 1960s and 1970s, as the mills prospered and things improved financially, the annual "Wakes week" took over and a one-week mass exodus from northern mill towns during the summer months took precedence over the charabanc trips, and a full week's holiday at a holiday camp or in a seaside boarding house for the full family became the norm, instead of a single day out.
The charabanc is notably mentioned in Dylan Thomas's short story "A Story", also known as "The Outing". In this piece the young Thomas unintentionally finds himself on the annual men's charabanc outing to Porthcawl. Within the story the charabanc is referred to as a 'chara' in colloquial Welsh English.
The Decemberists' song The Legionnaire's Lament invokes the French origin of the vehicle and its use for sightseeing, as recalled wistfully by a soldier far from home: "On the old left bank/ my baby in a charabanc/ riding up the width and length/ of the Champs Elysees." It is also mentioned in the Stranglers song Peaches: "There goes the charabanc/ Looks like I'm gonna be stuck here the whole summer."
A charabanc is humorously mentioned in George Formby's song 'Riding In The T.T. Races', depicting the Isle of Man TT motorcycle race. George sings: "Once my bike was hard to ride, but I didn't mind/ Until I found they'd hitched a charabanc on behind."
In The Beatles Anthology, George Harrison referred to the concept behind the group's film Magical Mystery Tour as "basically a charabanc trip that people went on from Liverpool to see Blackpool Lights."
A char-a-banc also figures prominently in Rudyard Kipling's short story "The Village That Voted The Earth Was Flat"
- "char-à-banc". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.
- World Wide Words: Charabanc
- charabanc - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
- Flickr (2008-04-28). "This road is not suitable for charabancs". Retrieved 2008-10-25.
- Smith, D. J. (1994). Discovering Horse-drawn Vehicles. Osprey Publishing. pp. 85–86. ISBN 0-7478-0208-4.
- The Collected Stories, by Dylan Thomas. New Directions Publishing, 1984.
- Stage adaptation of Cider with Rosie at the Theatre Royal, Bury St Edmunds.
- Vince Hill replies to correspondence
- All Music biography of Vince Hill, by Dave Thompson
- The Decemberists' lyrics: Legionnaire's Lament, at the Lyric Archive.
- Stranglers' lyrics: Peaches, at the Lyric Archive.
- George Formby lyrics: Riding In The T.T. Races.
- Rockin' Down the Highway with Paul Grushkin: April 2007.
- Seabrook Coaching Stable Dispersal Auction: Roof-seat Break. The Carriage Association of America, Inc.