1883 in Ireland
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- April - The narrow gauge Castlederg and Victoria Bridge Tramway opens in County Tyrone.
- 30 October - Two Clan na Gael dynamite bombs explode in the London Underground, injuring several people. Next day the British Home Secretary, William Vernon Harcourt, introduces the Explosives Bill.
- 1 November - Mater Infirmorum Hospital in Belfast admits its first patients.
Arts and literature
- 7 January - Andrew Cunningham, 1st Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope, British admiral of the Second World War and First Sea Lord (died 1963).
- 24 January - Denis McCullough, Irish Volunteers and elected to the 4th Dáil Éireann (died 1968).
- 29 January - Billy McCracken, footballer and football manager (died 1979).
- 28 February - Seán Mac Diarmada, nationalist, rebel and Easter Rising leader, executed (died 1916).
- 1 May - Thomas J. Moore, actor (died 1955).
- 13 May - Jimmy Archer, Major League baseball player (died 1958).
- 23 June - Eva McGown, Official Hostess of Fairbanks and Honorary Hostess of Alaska (died 1972).
- 15 July - Denny Barry, Irish Republican, died during hunger strike, shortly after the Irish Civil War (died 1923).
- 2 August - Sam Irving, footballer and football manager (died 1968).
- 2 September - Alexander Haslett, independent TD (died 1951).
- 12 December - Peadar Kearney, Irish Republican and songwriter who wrote the lyrics to The Soldier's Song (died 1942).
Full date unknown
- St. John Greer Ervine, author and dramatist (died 1971).
- Rory O'Connor, Irish republican activist, captured at the fall of the Four Courts and executed (died 1922).
- Lorcán Ó Muireadais, priest and Irish language promoter.
- T. F. O'Rahilly, linguist and Irish language scholar (died 1953)
- Louisa Watson Small Peat, writer and lecturer (died 1952)
- 9 February - Henry John Stephen Smith, mathematician (died 1826).
- 26 May - Edward Sabine, astronomer, scientist, ornithologist and explorer (born 1788).
- 25 July - Frederick Edward Maning, writer and judge in New Zealand (born 1812).
- 22 October - Thomas Mayne Reid, novelist (born 1818).
- 24 November - William Fitzgerald, Church of Ireland Bishop of Killaloe (born 1814).
Full date unknown
- James Carey, Fenian and informer (born 1845).
- Robert Dwyer Joyce, music collector and writer (born 1830).