|Founded||19 June 1966|
Ram Ganesh Gadkari Chowk,
|Student wing||Bharatiya Vidyarthi Sena (BVS)|
|Youth wing||Yuva Sena|
|Women's wing||Shiv Sena Mahila Aghadi|
|Alliance||National Democratic Alliance|
|Seats in Lok Sabha|
|Seats in Rajya Sabha|
|Seats in Maharashtra Legislative Assembly|
|Bow & Arrow|
Shiv Sena (Marathi: Śiv Senā, meaning Shiva's Army, also SS), is a Hindu nationalist political organisation in India founded on 19 June 1966 by political cartoonist Bal Thackeray. The party originally emerged out of a movement in Mumbai demanding preferential treatment for Maharashtrians over migrants to the city. The party has a powerful hold over the Bollywood film industry[dubious ]. It is currently headed by Thackeray's son, Uddhav Thackeray. Members of Shiv Sena are referred to as Shiv Sainiks.
Although the party's primary base is still in Maharashtra, it has tried to expand to a pan-Indian base. In the 1970s, it gradually moved from solely advocating a pro-Marathi ideology, to one supporting a broader Hindu nationalist agenda, as it aligned itself with the Bharatiya Janata Party. Its critics have described it as a "Hindu extremist" party. The party has taken part in numerous Maharashtra state governments at several times and was a coalition partner in the National Democratic Alliance cabinet that ruled India between 1998–2004.
According to Balakrishna, the public sector companies in response to Sena's violent pressure began employing Maharashtrians in large numbers; the company owners didn't object to the Sena entry into trade unionism since "Thackeray ruled like a dictator, one phone call was enough to ensure peace on the shop floor." The party's control over the Mumbai and Thane corporations bolstered the party financially. According to Balakrishna "as long as the Sena confined its activities to the Mumbai-Thane belt, Congress leaders like Murli Deora, who headed the party unit in Mumbai for two decades, never confronted the Sena". The threat to the Congress emerged after 1985, when the party aspired to form a government in Maharashtra. In 1995, after the 1993 riots in Mumbai in which Balakrishna alleges "Shiv Sena took part ... in a big way", which saw a polarisation of votes, the Shiv Sena/BJP alliance won state assembly elections and formed a government.
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After the Independence of India in 1947, regional administrative divisions from the colonial era were gradually changed and states following linguistic borders were created. Within the Bombay Presidency a massive popular struggle was launched for the creation of a state for the Marathi-speaking people. In 1960 the presidency was divided into two linguistic states, Gujarat and Maharashtra. Moreover, Marathi-speaking areas of the erstwhile Hyderabad state were joined with Maharashtra. Mumbai, in many ways the economic capital of India, became the state capital of Maharashtra. On one hand, people belonging to the Gujarati community owned the majority of the industry and trade enterprises in the city. On the other, there was a steady flow of South Indian migrants to the city, and who came to take over many white-collar employments.
In 1960 Bal Thackeray, a Mumbai-based cartoonist, began publishing the satirical cartoon weekly Marmik. Through this publication he started disseminating anti-migrant sentiments. On 19 June 1966, Thackeray founded the Shiv Sena as a political organisation. At the time of its foundation, the Shiv Sena was not a political party as such.
The Shiv Sena especially attracted a large number of disgruntled and often unemployed Marathi youth, who were attracted by Thackeray's charged anti-migrant oratory. In its early days, the Shiv Sena followed an anti-South agenda and its slogan was "Pungi Bajao, Lungi Bhagao" ("Blow the flute, and drive the lungis or South Indians away"). Shiv Sena cadres became involved in various attacks against the South Indian communities, vandalising South Indian restaurants and pressuring employers to hire Marathis.
Another main characteristic of the early years of the Shiv Sena was its major rivalry with communist trade unions. Prior to the formation of the Shiv Sena, the Communist Party of India played a dominant role in labour politics in Mumbai. The Shiv Sena was supported by elements inside the Indian National Congress, who hoped that the new organisation would be capable of weakening the communist trade union influence. Soon Shiv Sena cadres were involved in a series of violent conflicts with the communist trade union activists. In 1970 the CPI MLA of Dadar, Krishna Desai, was assassinated. CPI charged the Shiv Sena for the murder, and held Thackeray as responsible for the act. Ultimately he was acquitted as large industry houses backed him and influenced the decision of the court.
The Shiv Sena-BJP combine won the 1995 Maharasthra state elections. After assuming state government power, Shiv Sena began to redress its organisation. A 'Shivsena Rajyapramukh Parishad' convention was held in Mumbai six months after the election. At the meeting a large number of local party leaders and representatives of various wings of the party participated. The meeting filled the function of reorienting the party organisation to adapt to the new tasks of being a party in government.It renamed Bombay as Mumbai.
Alliance with the Bharatiya Janata Party
The Sena started placing more weight on the Hindutva ideology in the 1970s as the hallmark 'sons of the soil' cause was weakening. With the shift to Hindutva, Thackeray increasingly made some controversial moves against Muslims and neighbouring Pakistan.
The party has ruled the state in coalition with the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) from 1995–99. The Sena is the opposition party in the state along with the BJP since 1999. The Shiv Sena-BJP combine governs the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation. Traditionally the main strongholds of Shiv Sena have been Mumbai and the Konkan coastal areas. However, in the 2004 Lok Sabha elections the result was reversed. The Shiv Sena made inroads in the interior parts of the state, while suffering losses in Mumbai.
Raj Thackeray split
In July 2005 Narayan Rane was expelled from the party, which sparked internal conflict in the party. In December the same year Raj Thackeray, Bal Thackeray's nephew, left the party. Raj Thackeray later founded a new party, Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS). After the split, clashes have occurred between followers of the two Senas.
Although the MNS is a break-away group from the Shiv Sena, the party is still based Bhumiputra ideology. When unveiling the party in an assembly at Shivaji Park he said, that everyone is anxious to see what will happen to Hindutva. When unveiling, he also said, "I shall elaborate on the party's stance on issues like Hindutva, its agenda for development of Maharashtra and the significance of the party flag colours at the 19 March public meeting."
Raj Thackeray considers himself an Indian nationalist (not just a regionalist) and claims that the Congress is two-faced.
After Bal Thackeray
Uddhav Thackeray had become the party's leader in 2004, although Bal Thackeray continued to be an important figurehead. After the demise of Bal Thackeray on 17 November 2012 at 3.33 p.m, Uddhav became the sole Pramukh (party leader).
As the Pramukh (Chief) of the party, Bal Thackeray took all major decisions and claimed that he ran the Sena-Bharatiya Janata Party government of 1995 to 1999 with what he called a 'remote control.' Activists and members of the Shiv Sena call themselves Shiv Sainiks, and carry out most of the party's grassroots work. During his last days, Bal Thackeray did not concern himself with day-to-day activities of the party, which was run by his youngest son Uddhav Thackeray.
The recently refurbished Sena Bhavan located in the Dadar locality in Mumbai has served as the headquarters of the Sena since 1976. The Sena's shakhas (Branches) spread throughout the state of Maharashtra as well as in selected locations in other states decide upon most of the local issues in their particular cities or towns.
|1971 Lok Sabha||5||227,468|||
|1980 Lok Sabha||2||129,351|||
|1989 Lok Sabha||3||1||339,426|||
|1989 Goa Assembly||6||4,960|||
|1991 Lok Sabha||22||4||2,208,712|||
|1993 Madhya Pradesh Assembly||88||75,783|||
|1996 Lok Sabha||132||15||4,989,994|||
|1996 Haryana Assembly||17||6,700|||
|1997 Punjab Assembly||3||719|||
|1998 Lok Sabha||79||6||6,528,566|||
|1998 Delhi Assembly||32||9,395|||
|1998 Himachal Pradesh Assembly||6||2,827|||
|1999 Lok Sabha||63||15||5,672,412|||
|1999 Goa Assembly||14||5,987|||
|2000 Orisa Assembly||16||18,794|||
|2001 Kerala Assembly||1||279|||
|2002 Goa Assembly||15|||
|2004 Lok Sabha||56||12||7,056,255|||
|2009 Lok Sabha||22||11||6,828,382|||
Mumbai municipal corporation elections 2012
The Shiv Sena, BJP, in alliance with RPI (Athavale) retained power in the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation, India's richest civic body with an annual budget of 210 billion (US$3.8 billion). The Shiv Sena, BJP, RPI (Athavale) alliance has won 75, 32, and 1 seat respectively, a total of 108. About 60% or 44 of the 75 SS corporators are women, the SS lost 9 seats, whereas BJP gained 4 seats as compared to 2007. One of SS corporators is Anusha Valpadasi a female student, in her early twenties, from ward no 176 Dharavi.
The Sena claims to have played a central role in the emancipation of 500,000 slum dwellers in the Dharavi area of Mumbai, the largest slum in Asia. However, the state's policy of giving free houses to slum dwellers has been mired in controversy ever since it was introduced by the Shiv Sena-BJP government a decade ago.
Sthaniya Lokadhikar Samiti
Cricket with Pakistan
In December 2003, Shiv Sena activists damaged the cricket pitch of the Agra Sport Stadium which was supposed to host the cricket match between Pakistan and India. In April 2005, Bharatiya Vidyarthi Sena, the students wing of Shiv Sena attempted to prevent the India – Pakistan one day International, being held in New Delhi. The protester's spokesman demanded that "India should not play cricket with Pakistan till it hands over to India 20 terrorists, including Dawood Ibrahim, and closes down militant training camps running there."
Attack on the media
The offices of Hindi and Marathi TV news channels IBN-7 and IBN-Lokmat in Mumbai and Pune were attacked and vandalised by Shiv Sena activists on 20 November 2009. Shivsainik's slapped IBN7's Senior Editor Ravindra Ambekar and then attacked IBNLOKMAT's editor Nikhil Wagle. Shiv Sena attributed the attacks to the criticisms of Bal Thackeray by the news channel over his remarks on Sachin Tendulkar. Shiv Sena Rajya Sabha MP Sanjay Raut described the attacks as "spontaneous". Shiv Sena spokespersons tried to justify the attacks.
- Aditya Thackeray
- Marathi nationalism
- Maharashtra Navnirman Sena
- Belgaum border dispute
- Nepal Shivsena
- Babri Mosque
- Asom Sena
Books — Marathi
- Bhosale, Harshad (2004): 'Mumbai Mahanagarpalika Nivadnuk' in Palshikar Suhas and Nitin Birmal (eds), Maharashtrache Rajkaran Pratima, Pune.
- Maharashtratil Sattantar, Vora Rajendra and Suhas Palshikar, Granthali, Mumbai 1996
- Bhosale, Harshad(2006),"Mumbaichya Vikasacha Arthik, Rajakiya Ani Samajik Sandarbha",in Bi monthly APLA PARAM MITRA, Sept–October 2006,year 5,issue-3.
Books — English
- Ethnicity and Equality: The Shiv Sena Party and Preferential Policies in Bombay, MF Katzenstein – 1979 – Cornell University Press
- Warriors in Politics: Hindu Nationalism, Violence, and the Shiv Sena in India, S Banerjee – 2000 – Westview Press
- The Sena Story, Purandare Vaibhav, Business Publications, Mumbai,(1999)
- The Charisma of Direct Action: Power, Politics, and the Shiv Sena, JM Eckert – 2003 – Oxford University Press
- Nativism in a Metropolis: The Shiv Sena in Bombay, D Gupta – 1982 – Manohar (OUP 1996)
- Shiv Sena: An Assessment, Palshikar, Suhas, Department of Politics and Public Administration, University of Pune, Pune (1999)
- Maximum City: Bombay Lost and Found, 'Power', chapter 3, Mumbai, Mehta, Suketu, Penguin Books(2005)
- The Rebirth of Shiv Sena: The Symbiosis of Discursive and Organizational Power, Mary Fainsod Katzenstein, Uday Singh Mehta, Usha Thakkar, The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 56, No. 2 (May 1997), pp. 371–390
- Saffronisation of the Shiv Sena, J Lele — Bombay: Metaphor for Modern India, 1995
- Cultural Populism: The Appeal of the Shiv Sena, G Heuzé — Bombay: Metaphor for Modern India, 1995
- The Shiv Sena's new avatar: Marathi chauvinism and Hindu communalism, R Sardesai – Politics in Maharashtra, 1995
- The Rhetoric of Hindu Nationalism: A Narrative of Mythic Redefinition, Robert C. Rowland, Abhik Roy; Western Journal of Communication, Vol. 67, 2003
- Regenerating Masculinity in the Construction of Hindu Nationalist Identity: A Case Study of Shiv Sena, Abhik Roy, Communication Studies, Volume 57, Number 2 / June 2006,
- The Feminization of Violence in Bombay: Women in the Politics of the Shiv Sena, S Banerjee – Asian Survey, 1996
- The vernacularisation of Hindutv: The BJP and Shiv Sena in rural Maharashtra, Thomas Blom Hansen Contributions to Indian Sociology, Vol. 30, No. 2, 177–214 (1996)
- The Shiv Sena: A Movement in Search of Legitimacy R Joshi – Asian Survey, 1970
- Origins of Nativism: The Emergence of Shiv Sena in Bombay MF Katzenstein – Asian Survey, 1973
- Sardesai, Rajdeep 'Shiv Sena's New Avatar: Marathi Chauvinism and Hindu Communalism' in Usha Thakkar and Mangesh Kulkarni (eds), Politics in Maharashtra, Himalaya, Mumbai, pp 127–46 (1995)
- " City of Mongrel Joy": Bombay and the Shiv Sena in Midnight's Children and The Moor's Last Sigh, R Trousdale – JOURNAL OF COMMONWEALTH LITERATURE, 2004
- Kulkarni, Dhaval. "After riot, Shiv Sena goes the Hindutva way once more". DNA India. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
- Kaul, Vivek. "It’s back to Hindutva for Shiv Sena after 11 August". firstpoint.com. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
- Dean, Nelson. "Author Rohinton Mistry slams Mumbai University after book ban". telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
- "Know Your Party: Shiv Sena". Rediff.com. Retrieved 2006-07-22.
- Jeff Haynes (7 April 2011). Religion, Politics and International Relations. Taylor & Francis. pp. 150–. ISBN 978-1-136-73753-4. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- S., Balakrishnan (29 November 2005). "Sena fate: From roar to meow". http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/ (Mumbai: Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd.). Retrieved 18 February 2012.
- "Sena fate: From roar to meow". The Times of India. 29 November 2005. Retrieved 2006-08-11.
- Shiv Sena Shakha no. 111
- Indian Theological Association, ed. (2002). Hindutva: an Indian Christian response : the 23rd annual meeting of the Indian Theological Association, Bangalore, 26–30, April 2000. Dharmaram Publications. p. 149. ISBN 978-81-86861-39-4. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- Pankaj Prasoon; Pratyush Nilotpal; Centre for Indian Political Research & Analysis (2005). Indian political parties. CIPRA Books. p. 353. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- Blom Hansen, Thomas. Wages of violence: naming and identity in postcolonial Mumbai. Princeton; Princeton University Press, 2002. p. 200
- "Know Your Party: Shiv Sena". Rediff.com. Retrieved 2006-07-22.
- P. 1048 Indian Political Parties Annual, 2006 By Mahendra Gaur.
- "Raj Thackeray launches new party", Press Trust of India – Updated: Thursday, March 09, 2006 at 1914 hours IST
- P. 1048 Indian Political Parties Annual, 2006 By Mahendra Gaur
- "Thackeray inaugurates new Sena bhavan". NDTV news. Retrieved 2006-07-29.
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- List Of Political Parties
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- NDTV Correspondent (17 February 2012). "Mumbai Elections: Shiv Sena – BJP win; Congress concedes defeat". www.ndtv.com (New Delhi: NDTV Convergence Limited). Retrieved 18 February 2012.
- Mumbai Bureau (17 February 2012). "Sena romps home for the fourth time". www.hindu.com (Chennai: The Hindu). Retrieved 18 February 2012.
- Jain, Bhavika (8 February 2012). "21-year-old aspires to be a corporator". www.hindustantimes.com (New Delhi: HT Media). Retrieved 18 February 2012.
- "Major upsets, few surprises mark day". www.indianexpress.com (Mumbai: The Indian Express Limited). 18 February 2012. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
- p Rediff News.
- 'Highrises don't suit Dharavi slum dwellers'
- Dharavi slum will be economic hub: Joshi
- Business India. A.H. Advani. 1996. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
- "Sena squad for Kotla". www.hindu.com (Chennai: The Hindu). 15 April 2005. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
- In the name of their Boss, Sena goons attack IBN TV channels
- If you target us, we will attack: Shiv Sena leader http://ibnlive.in.com/news/if-you-target-us-we-will-attack-shiv-sena-leader/105645-3.html
- SHIV SENA ATTACKS IBN OFFICES, GLOATS http://ibnlive.in.com/news/shiv-sena-attacks-ibn-offices-in-mumbai-pune/105636-3.html